Binary Opposition in Literature: Definition & Examples ...
Binary Opposition in Literature: Definition & Examples ...
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Define binary options - pelajaran.co.id
New York City Will Allow Gender-Neutral 'X' On Birth Certificates; A new bill makes it easier for all transgender people born in NYC to change the sex listed on their birth certificates, and permits an 'X' option for those defining as non-binary.
[ImLivingAmongYou] UTC is finally up Veritaseum its like Bitcoin Binary options with smart contracts. Define Your risk Blockchain secure .. its like a normal Bitcoin wallet with smart contract swaps !!
"I started off with €100. I felt super-confident watching the ticker as stocks and shares were going up and down," he said. He piled into oil at $16 a barrel, thinking the price was sure to go up, but it fell almost immediately to $14. I didn't have enough money to cover the loss, so it crashed out my position and I got an email. I had no idea what had happened. I thought I was owning barrels, but I wasn't, I was borrowing. It was the fastest €100 I'd ever spent."
A thorough evaluation of the 9/18 PTS update and base changes, as well as almost everything else coming up.
Hello, here’s another round of Esamir Rework reviews. I’ll also cover the Indar base changes, the storm, vehicle balance changes and new infantry gear. I’m not going to touch on outfit resource changes here, since this post is long enough already. I’d like to give shoutouts to aln-isolator , [NWYT]Praefectus, the pilots of [SACA] and everyone else who helped give feedback. Here’s the image gallery. This time around the bases listed in the document match the order in which they appear in the gallery. https://imgur.com/a/5pd5VFj Esamir has a new skybox which is much less bright. I can now see vehicle weapon tracers when shooting. This is a long asked for change. Andvari: 3 points now, 12 min cap with 2 points, 4 mins with 3 points. Consider adjusting the timers. Ymir: No changes to terrain that I can see. It’s a 12 minute cap with two points owned, and 4 minutes with 3 points. Might consider reducing those slightly. Apex Genetics has had its wall adjusted somewhat, as well as the rocks surrounding the triple stack. There are now more routes for infantry to enter the base. Aurora Materials: Sunderer garage and surrounding terrain seem to have been lowered slightly. Also, there’s now a rock at the end of the garage, which reduces the possible angles the bus inside can be shelled from. The slope between the crescent building and the road has had some paths added for infantry. Overall, good changes. However, there’s still one issue here, and that’s the possibility of shelling the triple stack balcony from the ridge NW of the base. Additional purple spikes from the cluster behind the spawn room could be positioned to block this firing angle. Eastwake Harborage: Point has received a new structure above it. It’s now on the bottom floor of a triple stack that has an expanded balcony around its second floor. This gives point holders a lot of additional cover, but the problems with this base still exist. There’s still a ridiculous distance between spawn room and the point with minimal cover from vehicles/bolters/LAs- a literal Death Valley. The area immediately around point is still extremely harasser friendly and could use some props to obstruct harasser movement. In its current position, the teleporter room is useless since infantry leaving it must still advance through Death Valley. Sundy positions are a bit sketchy, too. Fortunately, I’ve had a long discussion and now believe this base could be fixed with a couple tweaks. Consider replacing the AI turret outside the spawn room with an AV gun. This would discourage excessively aggressive vehicles from camping Death Valley. Likewise, replacing the light vehicle pull with an MBT pull gives defenders a bit more potential firepower, and increases the area attacking vehicles must cover to protect their own vulnerable spawns. This base would also benefit from the moving of primary teleporter room to a point higher up the hill and closer to the point, as shown by squad waypoint in this image: https://i.imgur.com/TuEee9F.png. A second teleporter here at hearts waypoint https://i.imgur.com/JUbXklc.png gives defenders another route into the point without going through Death Valley. At these two locations sunderer garages could be built to create safer spawn points for attackers.https://i.imgur.com/QWblfz4.pnghttps://i.imgur.com/w4HR05n.png Echo valley: Rocks have been added on the exterior side of the vehicle terminal to give it some cover. However, they aren’t close enough to each other to prevent me from driving through with a Kobalt bus, nor is there anything stopping me from hacking the terminal or using a GSD to get through the shield and then start driving around the base. Placement of a couple rocks in very specific spots would stop this. Secondly, a crate has been placed between bridges to give infantry another path into the point building. It’s a cool concept, but it needs some form of obstruction to prevent me from driving harassers or possibly larger vehicles onto the two bridges and blasting point directly. Thirdly, consider some form of sight blockers on the west wall to reduce the potential for LAs to spawn camp. Excavion DS-01E: Cover has been placed over both tunnels, which is an excellent change. MBT pulls have been added to this base, though they could stand to be moved slightly closer to the spawn room to deter attackers from hacking them and flooding the base with AI vehicles. A point is located in a long narrow building near the eastern tunnel exit. B is in a triple stack on the south side. C is located immediately west of the drill site. Capture timer is 4 minutes with two points and 1 minute with all 3. This base is mostly fine, but could do with some small tweaks for increased cover. At A point the point holders have few options for cover inside. There are two small smokestack structures (pictures in gallery) that could be replaced with actual buildings to provide more cover from aircraft for players moving around inside the base. Timers could probably be increased slightly. Overall though it’s in a decent state. Genudine Gardens: Some props have been added throughout the base that’ll prevent harassers from turboing around like maniacs, but the gigantic hole in the wall in one corner needs to be closed off somewhat to prevent vehicle entry or at least make it more difficult. This base would be fine if that hole were sealed or obstructed better. Grey Heron: Additional cover has been placed on the side of the staircase leading from spawn to B/C point. The secondary route for defenders has been fleshed out- the door now is high enough to get under, and there is a hole in the floor that allows defenders to drop down to the lower level. Cover has been added on the B side of this base. For improvements, I still think a roof is needed over the stairs from defender spawn to the lower level. A wall alone won’t stop tanks from shelling it. C could use a bit of cover, but I’m concerned that adding too much will turn it into a fortress. You can enter this base with harassers, so some bollards should be added to each entrance to prevent that. Jaegers’ fist: Sunderer garage has been added, and the trench has been improved. This base has some odd issues from an infantry perspective, namely that attackers and defenders have the exact same routes to the point, as shown in the gallery. I have no ideas for how this could be improved. I still believe the point needs some kind of roof to block HESH spam and A2G, preferably a solid one to deter LAs from doing C4 bombing. BL-4 Recovery and Vidar Observation Post both have spawn rooms and light vehicle terminals. This is a pretty good change, allowing closer vehicle pulls and a shorter sundy reinforcement distance for attacks on the surrounding facilities. Jord Amp Station: More cover has been added around C point. This is a good change, but doesn’t change the fact that A is still inside the station. Mani Lake: This one has undergone the most terrain edits, and consequently has become a lot less vehicle friendly. The two trenches leading into the base have had barricades installed, allowing infantry to move through but not vehicles. The hills surrounding the base have had their exterior faces steepened significantly, preventing treaded vehicles from driving up them. This change is excellent, but needs a bit of tuning. The Western Ridge’s southern tip has a shallow enough slope that tanks can still drive up it. On the large mountain to the West on the far side of the road, there’s a small protrusion that should also be levelled. Once these two spots are taken care of, this base will be fine. Overall, the changes are very good here. Mattherson’s Triumph: The Sunderer NDZ has been reduced in radius, which allows the defenders to deploy inside the south tower for a safer position. This is a good change. The ridgeline to the NE has had its northern face steepened significantly, preventing tanks from driving up that side. However, the SW face has become easier to traverse, so the ridge is still usable for bombardment of the catwalks and A point. If this goes live in this state, it’s not a total disaster since tanks driving up that will be very exposed to AV fire from the tower, but it still could stand to be addressed. Likewise, there’s still a nice spur sticking out of the north end from the NW ridge that allows tanks to easily shell defender spawn and A point. The fix here is simple- flatten the spur completely. A point needs additional work. At minimum, the windows on each tower in the room where A point/SCU would normally go should be sealed off to reduce the angles point holders must watch. There’s very little cover on the ground, especially when you consider all the angles A can be shot at from. I believe the point could be enclosed in the same type of building used at Chimney Rock’s point on Amerish. The bridges are a mixed bag. They’re identical copies with one rotated 180 degrees, which means that crate placement favors the attackers on B side and the defenders on the C side. Picking one crate pattern for all 4 bridge ends is one possible fix. I’m still not sold on the idea of both points being on bridges. They’re very exposed to A2G spam and bolters. Overall, at the very least the terrain edits are a nice start, and the sunderer NDZ change is very welcome. Nott Communications: This base is now entirely underground. Attackers enter by overloading a shielded gate, and then drop down into an amp station interior. These gravity lifts are one way, but please consider adding an up lift to replace one of the drop pads. A point is in the position where A points usually are in amp stations. B and C are in the room where SCU would be normally positioned. At the end of this room where the tunnels and back door would normally be is a one-way teleporter, which is the only way for anyone to get out of this base right now. Defenders spawn underground and there’s a one-way shield leading to where the vehicle bay normally is. To improve this base, I’d make the one-way shield a two way shield, and reverse one of the grav lifts. I could not test the cap timer since I did not feel like ghost capping half a continent. Pale Canyon: Some cover has been adjusted by the big yellow tanks on the SE side. A new route has been placed through the rocks at the NW corner of the base. This is an interesting change, but I don’t know how that’ll play out on live since currently I can park a bus inside the base at the same location. The Rink: The ground texture at A point is now ice, so it’s actually an ice rink. Too bad you don’t slide around here. Saerro Listening Post: Trees added to A point to break LOS between attacking vehicles and the tower. The wall between A and B has had some new gaps placed in it to allow infantry to get in. Interesting changes for sure, but I don’t know how they’ll play out. The Traverse: The bridge has been resurrected, although it’s in a heavily damaged state. It’s now an infantry only playground, unless you’re a bold harasser or magrider driver. Because the storm was here, I really couldn’t stick around and take a long look at this. Lastly, the bottom of the pit has been raised a bit and paths to the bottom have been defined more clearly. There also have been some changes to roads around the continent, but nothing major. Indar: TI Alloys: The removal of the bridge is a failure to understand why TI Alloys is such a difficult base to attack. On live servers, TI currently suffers from horrific sunderer placement options which combine with its central location to create a base that’s easy to defend. From the North, attackers must park their bus and attack up a hill through narrow ravines into entrenched defenders backed up by AI harassers, sunderers, ANTs, lightnings and even occasional MBTs. From the South, attackers have two bus spots: One is placed to the south-east, below the point. The other is placed directly south of the spawn room on the far side of the road. Both of these options are suboptimal- on the south east spawn the bus can easily be sniped by vehicles shelling from the Crown, driving down from the Crown, or by vehicles streaming out of the vehicle pull. The south bus on the far side of the road is also not ideal, since infantry have to cross the road and deal with a flood of vehicles as well as an angry AI turret. The only decent spawn location is at the end of the rock bridge, since that one’s reasonably safe from enemy vehicles and doesn’t involve attacking from the low ground. However, this position’s impeded by the fact that attackers from the north inevitably gravitate to the eastern side of the base since that’s safer from the defenders, forcing a three way that never ends. The result is a base that can’t be broken except by routers. The removal of the rock bridge changes none of this, but instead creates more problems. The safe sundy position on the bridge is gone entirely. Further, the bridge’s removal allows tanks to bombard Ti from the Crown once more, since it served as a line-of-sight blocker. The new attacker foot path to the north east is extremely vulnerable to bombardment from the Crown. As far as the base interior goes, a new wall has been added to the interior of the point room structure. This might give attackers a better chance to get to the point, but at the same time it might make things easier for the defenders should they conduct an organized push since there are fewer angles to set up a crossfire from. So how can Ti be improved? I’d start by bringing the bridge back, or at least a small section of it to allow for a safe sunderer position at the east side. For the south, consider a tunnel leading under the road. This allows infantry to get to the base safely. I’d also consider adding in more props to restrict the passage of vehicles through the spawn room area to the northern side of the base. Removing the Kobalt bus fiesta there will make it easier for attackers to push in from the north. Lastly, if the bridge is not restored, consider creating a rock wall at the north east section of crown to prevent tanks from raining hell on anyone fighting at Ti. Crown: The removal of D point is honestly a good thing. It wasn’t fun for anyone to attack since it’s open ground and below a cliff which enables C4 spam against vehicles and requires attackers push against entrenched infantry. Since Crown becomes a three point again, now the base cannot be stuck in a perpetual stalemate. I’m not a fan of where A point was moved to, either. I think if the rock bridge were kept then Crown would be mostly fine. With the three non-vehicle points it has on live. The issue with A being on that southern bridge is that if the attackers set up sunderers to control B, then they get A almost for free and can contest C as well. B point has been moved farther towards the center of the mountain and the tunnel system lengthened a bit, and a lot of cover has been removed at the initial entrance room that exists on live.The extra tunnel into B is an interesting idea and gives a better chance of an attack from the North succeeding, but at the same time it’s just another tunnel choke point to for aoe spam to create nasty farms. C is also problematic if it’s supposed to be the easy point for defenders to contest. It’s a fair distance from the tower, and it’s also open ground which is prime for A2G farming. I’d suggest moving this one into one of the nearby buildings if A must stay in the position it’s at on PTS. I’m not convinced the base needed any point position changes apart from the removal of D point. The current point layout on PTS favors an attack from the SE very heavily, and attacks from the East or North are far more difficult. While old A was very close to the tower, at least it provided a convenient point for attacks from the East. None of the changes really address the problem of poor bus location options, and with the current terrain there really aren’t many good potential spawn options. At most some garages could be added. Ceres Hydroponics: Defenders now have a slightly shorter path to the point when pushing from the NE side of the base. The point itself has much less cover. I’m not going to make judgements on this without seeing how it plays out. The Esamir storm: I’m not sure what this thing is supposed to do. The entire point of the game is large scale battles, yet this thing rolls around the map destroying the biggest fights. There’s nowhere safe from it. Sunderers will get destroyed even if put in garages. When outdoors infantry can be instagibbed by lightning for staying outside too long, and even when indoors their shielding takes frequent chip damage from environmental effects. The shield damage consistently drops players down about 150 shield points that constantly recharge, but this is enough to start messing with TTKs. For example, a commissioner can consistently OHK players. Since the shield damage is not synchronized across all players, it’s possible to be forced into gunfights where you have no hope of winning not because you were in a bad spot or outplayed, but simply because the game decided it’s your time to die. This applies doubly for lightning bolts which will randomly strike you down. There’s a text warning, of course, but random OHK mechanics really shouldn’t be a thing. You cannot use steel rain in the storm. For vehicles this is obnoxious too. Ground vehicles lose most of their mobility, which will punish new players with poorly certed vehicles even more. Aircraft are even worse off, losing most of their vertical thrust. At times I felt like even afterburning upward was barely enough to keep the aircraft airborne. Vehicles kept in the storm for too long will simply be instagibbed, which cripples sunderers as spawns. The storm also destroys base turrets and terminals. There are counters to the storm, though. Infantry can deploy lightning rods bought with merit that allow them to fight outside, but it doesn’t stop shield chip damage, and can equip an insulated armor suit at the cost of flak armor, nanoweave, or shield capacitor. This suit slot appears to be bugged and doesn’t actually reduce the chip damage taken by your shields. Carapace seems to be immune to this chip damage. Vehicles can equip insulated armor in the defense slot. This mitigates the performance hit to vehicles, reduces the damage taken by lightning, and prevents the storm from instagibbing your vehicle. Now, this is less of a problem in the first place for aircraft and tanks, but it screws over sunderers. Sunderers are already fragile enough even with deployment shield equipped, but forcing spawn buses to use this module and rely on their low hull HP is a very bad idea when paired with random lightning strikes and the severe lack of garages Esamir has. With all that out of the way, the question I have to ask is why is the storm designed like this? It seems like a band-aid fix for zerging and actively punishes trying to create large fights. It cripples the vehicle game, negatively affects the infantry game, creates inconsistent TTKs, and only adds frustrating game mechanics. If the center of the map ends up with stalemates, it’ll circle around there endlessly preventing any kind of progress through the pile of three point bases. Why this, when there’s a lot more interesting concepts that could be used? For example, maybe the storm could reduce the rate at which players can spawn at a base/sunderers/routers. Maybe it could jam radaprevent Q spotting. Consider reducing shield chip damage to 50 shields instead of 150 to reduce TTK variance. There’s a lot more interesting ways it could change the game without being the anti-fun mechanic that it’s currently set up as. Infantry gear: Lightning grenade: Cool, you can launch a targeted lightning strike when in the storm. More instagibs is what the game needed. Lightning rod: This temporarily redirects lightning strikes near you. This is a solution to an obnoxious problem that doesn’t need to exist. Condensate grenade: Reduces movement speed and ROF by 20% for six seconds. This is a terrible idea in an FPS game. This doesn’t create interesting gameplay situations. Instead of being outplayed, players hit by this just lose since the game’s punishing them for playing. Keep this in RPGs and RTS games. Now, we do have status grenades already, but do we need one that’s as powerful as this one is? BEC grenade: Similar to Condensate Grenades, this is a horrible addition to the game. Anything that hurts player mobility/damage output is a bad idea. Neutralizer Device: Campaign reward that allows players to acquire abandoned vehicles, and apparently strip ability energy from players too. I like the idea of vehicle acquisition, but I don’t know if we’ll ever see the second use of this tool. Abandoned vehicles: Around the continent are the hulks of abandoned tanks, sunderers and aircraft. They come with a special ability that I haven’t really tested, HEAT cannons and the first generation ES top gun. For the sake of loadout parity for all 3 abandoned MBTs I’d like to suggest the Prowler get a Gatekeeper instead of the Vulcan. Vehicle changes: Havoc missiles: Are these things still necessary, with the liberator nerfs? These things seem redundant now, and they’ll punish rep gal balls unnecessarily hard while valkyries with rep monkeys can probably still dodge these things easily. Phalanx AA turret range increase: This doesn’t fix any of the problems with the current AA setup. Instead, it’s going to just annoy A2A players who are flying along at high altitude and getting plinked by base AA guns, which is the reason the things got their range capped to begin with! Honestly I think these things should be replaced by weapons like Bastion CIWS guns. Those things are nasty at close range but their damage output falls off heavily at range. Liberator: -500 HP and ESF nosegun resist from 85 to 80. While the liberator needed some changes regarding its durability and repair tanking in particular, this change spectacularly misses the mark on many levels. This change skews ESF vs Liberator combat too far in favor of ESFs. When paired with air locks this brings down the TTK to incredibly fast levels (around 9 seconds, which isn’t even enough for three dalton shots) In this post, mystoganofedolashttps://www.reddit.com/Planetside/comments/ivjg8t/rock_paper_scissor_balance/ explains in great detail the liberator issues- it’s a blatant hard counter to ground vehicles, and gets brutally hard countered by ESFs on PTS. Hard counter mechanics are terrible in an FPS game. In this sort of rock-paper-scissors gameplay, things boil down less to individual ability and more towards who has an exact counter to something, which is extremely boring. There’s no skill in using A2A missiles, just as there’s minimal skill in hovering over tanks and daltoning them. In this post here https://www.reddit.com/Planetside/comments/ivsssx/did_some_basic_math_regarding_the_upcoming/, taltharius demonstrates that -500 HP barely changes anything in the case of liberators eating multiple AP shells before hitting fire suppression and flying off. Skilled gunnery should be rewarded, and sloppy flying should be punished. So how can this be improved? Consider reducing vulnerability to ESF noseguns slightly. Adjusting Liberator resistance against tank shells, light anti-vehicle, gatling guns, and infantry rockets will increase the damage libs take from ground fire and punish poor flying/reward skilled aim. Possibly consider increasing MBT main gun elevation angles slightly, to reduce the ability of liberators to hover over tanks with minimal counterplay. Harasser: Nanite cost to 300. Oh boy this one misses the mark completely. The problem with harassers has never really been cost related, but rather one that got introduced with CAI. The harasser itself is not overpowered and its efficiency in combat drops off hard at higher levels of gameplay. Only when harasser numbers become overwhelming (3 or more harassers vs 1 MBT) do the harassers stand a chance of defeating the best tank crews, and even then the tank usually can take 2-3 harassers with it. Harasser vs tank gameplay is extremely boring and very binary. If the harasser has a CQ AV gun it’s forced to fight at point blank which means I delete it easily. If it uses halberd or ES long range AV we both enter a boring poke fight where neither one does significant damage to the other. Even if the harasser opens up with rear hits the MBT still has an overwhelming advantage in firepower and hit points. With tanks, the problem since CAI has been poor muzzle velocity of HEAT shells which makes hitting difficult and what most players will have equipped, pathetic Basilisk DPS against everything (Kobalt kills stock harassers 4 seconds faster), Skyguards being helpless against every ground vehicle, and the Viper not having the accuracy to deal with small moving fast targets. Small changes to these three weapons will reduce harasser vs tank complaints. Harasser vs Harasser is broken, for a different reason. Harassers have a weakness to gatling guns, which means that the Vulcan and Aphelion rip through harassers while the Mjolnir specializes in fighting heavy vehicles. In practice, this means that for low/average skilled car crews, vulcans are disproportionately powerful since less skilled players won’t know to keep outside minimum damage range. At higher levels an Aphelion car is very hard to fight. Toning back harasser weaknesses to gatling guns might improve this situation, but at the same time it might nerf the Aphelion too much. At the very least this’d probably reduce vulcan whine somewhat. Overall, I have mixed impressions. The base changes are mostly for the better, but the storm, infantry gear, and vehicle changes are mostly bad or miss the mark completely.
WotV PvP Tactics & Mentality - Six Months of Mediena Bombs & how the Meta Evolves in PvP
*** Registration is Now Open until 9/15 for the latest Live PvP tournament, organized by u/LongTimeGaming. There is no entry fee and everyone is guaranteed at least five rounds of combat! Please PM him or myself for details on how to register! *** For today's entry I want to discuss one of the stronger live PvP strategies currently floating around the meta, particularly at the higher player ranks or with whales smurfing at lower ranks: The Medi (Mediena) Bomb.
The Medi bomb, as it currently exists, comprises three major components: a Shukuchi Mediena, Agility, and as much Magic/Magic Attack equipment and VCs as can be mustered together. If you take away any of these components the win probability of the strategy plummets. Let's examine each in turn:
Shukuchi (and forward deployment) - Without Shukuchi and pushing Medi as far forward as you can you leave a lot of squares open where the enemy team can be hiding. No highly competitive team in live PvP is sticking to the default 'three across' formation!
Agility - Medi's main weakness is her fragility. If Medi doesn't go first there's the chance that the opponent will have a high speed unit in place to OHKO Medi (i.e., Frederika) or will at least be able to reposition their faster units out of Medi's threat range. Shadow Runner on a Medi is a must of course, but VCs that yield AGI are crucial as well.
Magic Attack - Being able to OHKO at least one enemy unit is essential - a unit with 1 HP is as dangerous as a unit with 4000 HP. A Platinum Rod +5, and a high level Trousseau are the most important elements. Mag from Ramuh is useful. You won't have Medi's own mag passive available due to needing Speed + Movement.
Responses to the Medi Bomb - Sample Formations
So here are some sample formations I whipped up - note the screenshots are composites from my main account so levels and etc. are not going to be optimal. There are many variations possible, these are just starting points! Option 1 - Go Faster than Medi Gunner Girls that are faster than a Medi Bomb are close to a guaranteed win! The hardest counter to Medi bomb is a Fred that's faster than her - A properly kitted Fred can OHKO a Medi with sharpshoot off the bat without any external buffs. Because Medi + AGI VC is always faster then a Fred without, you will need to put AGI cards of your own on top of your Fred to ensure you go before the enemy Medi does. Option 2 - Be able to survive the Plume This is the second picture here - the first one had an impossible setup for Rain due to my photoshopping (I don't own Rain). There are of course characters that can survive a plume, even a plume from a super whaled out Medi. Rain is one of these - he's a magic tank off the bat and he has elemental advantage to Medi. Ayaka can stand your viktora back up post plume while Rain can OHKO the Medi. Option 3 - Be able to Evade the Plume Miranda is a super useful utility placeholder for these formations Vinera is pretty popular in live pvp these days due to her combination of speed, power, and high evade. She is essentially unhittable to teams that haven't geared with guaranteed hit options or stacked as much ACC as they can. I don't have a leveled up Vinera to test the above combination for exact hit percentages but an unbuffed Vinera should have about 150-200 evade depending on cards. Not exactly easy to hit with a plume!
A Brief History of the Medi Bomb
Finally, the changes in popularity to the Medi Bomb through time exemplifies the essential elements that define the 'meta' in live PvP: the outcome to nearly every match is a binary win or loss. Any team that is slightly better than another will win almost all the time holding all over elements equal. Medi's evolution in live pvp shows this perfectly. In the first weeks of WotV, Medi bombs were one of the most common formations available. Medi was I think the fastest launch character and once she hit level 40 she could OHKO most other units common at the time that were also at level 40 (Mont, Sterne, etc.). This meant that Medi could just run up and drop the other team. Lots and lots of Medi v Medi engagements were happening and Medi's dominance in PvE and PvP was often remarked on by jokes or commentary here and elsewhere. Flash forward to the FFT event or so and Medi bombs disappeared from competitive play. Two things happened: Frederika and increasing toughness of teams. Fred, as I said before, is a hard counter to Medi as long as she goes first and at this stage in the game almost no one had high AGI VCs so Freds melted Medis off the live PvP scene. A secondary effect was that everyone was getting to level 99 on their mains and starting to amass TMRs - Medi stopped being able to OHKO units. Medi Bombs stayed quiet for the months following FFT until Platinum Rod came out, then whales with +15% AGI off the House Beolve card could go first in most engagements and do enough damage to OHKO broad swaths of units. Now with FFT2 almost done plenty of dolphins or even minnows/f2p willing to proc 5-6 whimseys per day can have their 15% AGI cards so Medi bombs are more accessible. Essentially, the meta is an unstable equilibrium defined by a complex set of inputs and that binary output of winning/losing. As soon as Medi is one AGI slower then her hard counter *and that hard counter is common* she becomes worthless. Same with the tipping point between OHKO and survival. Right now medi bombs are fast and powerful - therefore viable against many team comps. Well that wraps up today's post - this one turned out to be longer than I was expecting. Let me know if its too long in the comments and if you have any suggestions for future topics that you'd like a detailed breakdown on please let me know! ------------------------------------------------ WotV PvP Tactics & Mentality is an irregularly updated series of posts about the most neglected aspect of WotV: Live PvP If you liked this post, feel read to my previous entries in the series:
Jeph's attempts to represent every major marginalized group in the United States have absolutely wrecked this comic, and ended up accurately representing nobody.
Jeph...is not a great writer. I know we all have fond memories of QC in its "glory days," but participating in the reread I've started to realize something. Jeph's ability to write a good story is limited to what he himself experienced in his formative days and while he was writing the early strips: life as a mid-twenties-something guy, pining after attractive girls that came and went from his little indie music scene.And he does it well, because he's drawing on what he knows. The dialogue is realistic! Comics don't all end with a shitty-punch-line delivered by a sp0rk-holding-rando...because Jeph probably didn't interact with people like that. The main characters come off as real people because most of them are probably based, consciously or not, off of people Jeph really knew and interacted with. It's also real. There's plenty of dialogue that reads as entitled, or would now be considered entirely unacceptable in Jeph's writing. See Sarah's "rape/hump" dialogue. This is how Jeph and his friends *probably* spoke. I know that I threw around the word 'rape' much more casually when I was young and immature than I do now. (It also bothers me that Jeph tries to hide the fact that he's grown out of this mindset, but that's a different post altogether.) Or look at Faye's alcoholism storyline - probably the best writing the comic has seen. It's compelling and readable because it's something Jeph himself has dealt with - he knows those feelings of helplessness and addiction. It's true to life, and as a consequence the writing is almost naturally well done. And it makes sense! Because things proceed like a person's life often does, for Marten. People come, people leave. You fall in love with one girl, she leaves and you meet another. It's realistic because it's based in reality. It's fun because it has goofy situations, interesting characters, and a "very-pretty-if-you-don't-look-too-hard-at-it" sci-fi angle. Then we come to today. Look at how the cast has changed. Aside from having no protagonist, there is not a single main character that Jeph can really relate to on any real-world-experience level. As far as I know, he does not identify as a woman, as a person of color, as someone who is queer, or as someone who is transgendered. There's nothing wrong with that or writing about it, but it's definitely going to make writing characters who *are* living those lives a little harder to write. You don't have the dialogue to draw on. You don't have those interactions with other characters as lived-experiences to draw on. So you've got two choices. You either write what you *imagine* them to be and sound like, or you do your research. Let's talk about the first, and more problematic of the two options, first. I would encourage everyone to go check out /menwritingwomen for some good examples of why it can be this way. Even if you're doing your best to write it realistically, it's probably going to come off as often-times awkward sounding dialogue. Effectively every female character in the comic has been reduced to this. When they're not serving Jeph's purpose to represent their marginality (May opining the life of a convict, Roko having a dissociative episode, Brun acting emotionlessly and/or discussing clocks, the list goes on) they're acting like Jeph probably *imagines* women act around other women. Because Jeph has never *been* a woman alone with another woman, and he doesn't know the intricacies of homogenous gender conversations of the opposite sex more than a cis-gendered woman could explain had by men alone. It invariably turns to stereotypes - boobs, appearances, relationships. It also gives you characters, even if you represent them well, who are defined by the one characteristic you created them for. Brun is my favorite example for this. Do we know *anything* about this girl? We know she's an out-of-work bartender, enjoys clocks , and has autism. We know *so* much about her autism and almost nothing else about her because that's probably what Jeph has to draw on. I don't know that he's ever met someone with autism, let alone spoken with them about their life and experiences. We also know that everyone wants to fuck her, but that's its own weird can of worms that I don't really want to address right now. So what's the alternative, if you want to write about a person who is different from you? I don't think that artists should be constrained and I also think representation is really important. I think that Jeph's *intentions,* to write a comic that accurately represents the lives of members of marginalized groups, *especially* considering everything that's been going on in the United States is an admirable thing. And he actually does hit some elements quite well, actually. I know this sub likes to bash on the realism of Clinton's perceived sexual revelations, but queerness doesn't require foreshadowing to appear in someone's life and Jeph understands this. But, if you're going to do it, do your research. Be forewarned that from this point onwards, I'm speaking *solely* on theory. I don't get the sense that Jeph has ever researched the communities and issues he's trying to write about, save for the woketwitter threads he reads. Everything he writes now reads like it came out of a 15-post-long twitter thread explaining the virtues or disvirtues of this and/or that. I do not get the sense that he's ever strived to understand anything more than the broad-strokes of an issue, know the key-phrases and topic catchphrases, and sets off to write about it. For starters, *talk* to these communities. Reach out, past Twitter and Deviantart, and get a real understanding of what you're writing about. Meet transgendered people. Work with children with autism. Work with convicted felons. That's what good writers *do* when they want to understand the subjects they're writing about. Yes, that's hard when you're trying to represent *everyone,* so maybe it's time to scale back and focus in a little harder on one issue that's important to you, Jeph. Here's how I want to conclude this: Jeph wants to represent the marginalized in his comic, and he wants to offer sincere political commentary. I do not believe he does it just for the woke points (although, yes, his Patreon is the specter that will always loom over him). But if it's going to be at all quality, Jeph needs to narrow things down tremendously. Choose your target, do your research, and continuously write about that character, giving them the chance to develop naturally. Otherwise, it's going to be more of this herky-jerky bullshit forever. Edit: Read comments, decided to add a bit more. A lot of this comes from Jeph's mixed attempt at what he's doing. On one hand, he's admitted he's trying to make this comic a safe space for trans and other non-binary folk, which I think is great. On the other hand, he's simultaneously telling the stories of the lives of marginalized folks and write social commentary about the world as he perceives it. And there's nothing wrong with that...except for that you end up with, frankly, shitty storytelling and messages that don't come across very clearly. He has these intense lead-ups, like Faye coming out to her mother, or Roko's dissociative episodes, or Elliott confessing his attraction to someone who (as far as he knows) is a straight man. And then it just...gets resolved. No difficulties, no problems, just smooth sailing. And hey, if Jeph just wants to tell a friendly story there's nothing wrong with that, but it isn't really telling the stories of the marginalized. Because the truth is that those stories usually don't have happy endings. They don't usually end with accepting parents, or a problem that can be resolved with a snap of the fingers. They're oftentimes painful and they're intense, and if Jeph as an author is going to tell these stories then it is his responsibility to tell the truth. I think doing anything else is irresponsible, frankly. He's giving his readers, many of whom are younger and impressionable, a false sense of how these stories usually go. And I don't agree with the, "It's just supposed to be lighthearted," angle either. Plenty of shows have managed to maintain a tone while handling serious issues. Adventure Time is a great example of this.
Arch Linux's community package for the emulator PCSX2 which is on their official multilib repositories has sparked some questionable changes in the way they have compiled the binary. I chased them up about them defining OPENCL_API=ON, DISABLE_ADVANCE_SIMD=ON and EGL_API=OFF. After making some changes they have went ahead and built and distributed the 64-bit version of the emulator prematurely. Along with this, it has been brought up from the stable releases which it has always followed up until now.
OpenCL support is still experimental and we might be getting rid of it, future is unclear for it. Generally it's not included in any of the builds that are distributed as well as it being disabled by default when building the emulator. I'm glad this was disabled in the build, though.
The reason advanced SIMD is set to be disabled is to support really old CPUs with only SSE2 support. I don't understand who would have a powerful enough CPU to run the emulator decently that doesn't support AVX2, but that was the decision made by the package maintainer. Doing this limits all SIMD operations to only use SSE2 which can result in lower performance.
EGL was enabled as it is the only option in the current 1.7 developer builds of GSdx for Linux. I'm not sure the package maintainer understands this but he agrees EGL is the way to go. The change to use EGL was made because some laptop users with NVIDIA graphics processors had some issues with GLX, which is what EGL replaces.
64-bit support isn't mature enough to force onto everyone. The new 64-bit support requires moving away from the 1.6 stable build which has been kept on that repository for some time now. This change was made after I reported issues about the compile flags.
With these changes as well as future unwanted changes, I would like to say that for the foreseeable future we would like to NOT recommend using the pcsx2 package in Arch Linux repositories. Instead, please use the pcsx2-git package on the AUR which is maintained by weirdbeardgame kenshen (a contributor to the project) with help from myself and others. The AUR package is much more cared for the way the emulator developers would prefer. If you would like a package which distributes a precompiled binary, please voice your opinion. If there is enough interest, we might get one going. If the package maintainer for Arch Linux's repositories reads this, please consider looking at our PKGBUILD while following it much more closely in your version and keeping your version down at the stable 1.6 release. Thank you EDIT: Add explanation for the SIMD build flag EDIT-2: I want to clarify that this is in the testing repository and they haven't pushed this to the main repositories yet
I apologize in advance for what is probably an ignorant question but I am genuinely trying to understand so that I do not offend.
Hi, as the title says- I am sorry about my ignorance and also if this is not the correct place to ask. I figured it would be better to hear from people rather than a google search with unknown sources. I guess in short: my question is, how do you define/identify your sexuality as a non-binary individual? I am student in the field of psychology and I want to use the correct terms and as much as I would love to avoid labels, unfortunately, a lot of my work does require it so when doing so, I want to be as inclusive as possible. Our reports tend to start with "Mx. Smith is 40-year old, non-binary, Caucasian individual, etc...." I think that the field is definitely progressing but still tends to be rather black-and-white at times: If you're born male and interested in men, you're gay. Since quite a few professors still view the world this way, I am finding it difficult to get guidance in this area. So I guess what I am trying to ask is: what is the best way to word these things? How do you identify your sexuality? Could I say, so-and-so is a non-binary individual who is interested in men? rather than placing an actual "label"? Thank you in advance!
I created a mathematically optimal team generator!
Hi all, I've been playing FPL for a few years now, and by no means am I an expert. However, I like math and particularly optimization problems. And a few days ago I thought to use my math knowledge for something useful. My goal was to start from some metric that predicts the amount of points a player will score (either in the next gameweek, or over the whole season). From that metric, I wanted to generate the mathematically optimal team, aka choose the 15 players that will give me the most points, while staying within budget. I realized this is a constrained knapsack problem, which can be solved by dedicated solvers as long as the optimization problem is properly defined. Note that while I make a big assumption by choosing some metric from which I start, the solver actually finds the most optimal team, without any prior assumptions about best formation, budget spread, etc! (Warning: from this point onward it gets kinda math-y, so turn back or skip ahead to the results if that's not your thing) MATH So first, the optimization variable needed to be defined. For this purpose I introduced a binary variable x which is basically a vector of all players in the game, where a value of 1 indicates that player is part of our dream team and a 0 means it's not. Secondly, an objective function needs to be defined, which is what we want to maximize. In our case, this is the total expected points our dreamteam will score. I included double captain points and reduced points for bench players here. The objective function is linear, which is nice since it is convex (an important property which makes solving the problem much easier, and is even required for most solvers). Lastly are the constraints. Obviously, there is the 100M budget constraint. Then we also want the required amount of goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders and forwards. Then we need to keep in mind the formation constraints, and lastly are the max 3 players per club constraints. Luckily, these are all linear (so convex) constraints. I solved this problem using CVX for MATLAB, particularly with the Gurobi solver since it allows mixed integer programs. It tries to find the optimal variable x* which maximizes the objective function while staying within the constraints. And amazingly, it actually comes up with solutions! RESULTS So like I said before, I need to start from some metric that indicates how many points a player will score (if you have any recommendations, let me know!). For a lack of better options, I chose two different metrics:
The total points scored by the player last year
The expected points scored by the player in the next gameweek (ep_next in the FPL API, for fellow nerds)
Obviously, both metrics are not perfect. The first one doesn't take into account transfers, promoted teams, injuries, fixtures, position changes etc. However, it should work decent for making a set-and-forget team with proven PL players. The second metric seems to have a problem with overrating bench players of top PL teams such as Ozil, Minamino, etc. I'm not really sure why, but it's a metric taken directly from FPL with undisclosed underlying math so it's not my problem. Also, keep in mind that since the first gameweek does not feature City/Utd/Burnley/Villa players, this metric predicts them to score 0 points so they won't feature in the optimal team. Team 1: Last year's dreamteam
De Bruyne (c)
Team 2: Next week's dreamteam
Both teams cost exactly 100M. At first glance, there are some obvious flaws with both teams, but most of them are because the metric used as input is flawed, as I explained before. Lundstram is obviously a much worse choice this year due to various reasons, and Team 2 has some top 6 players which are very much not nailed. However. What I think is interesting is that both teams have only 2 starting midfielders. This despite the trend of people stacking premium midfielders. On the other hand, premium defenders seem to be very good value, and the importance of TAA and Robertson is underlined. Similarly, near-premium forwards in the 7.5-10 price range seem to be a good choice. CONCLUSION I'm quite content with my optimal team generator. Using it, I don't need to use vague value metrics such as VAPM. The input can be any metric which relates simply to how many points a player will score. Choices about relative value of e.g. defenders against midfielders, formation, budget spread etc. are all taken out of my hands with this team generator. The team that is generated is only as good as the metric used as input. But given a certain input metric, you can be sure that the generated team is optimal. I would gladly share my MATLAB code if there is any interest. Also, I'm open to suggestions on how to extend it. EDIT: Here it is. (Tiny disclaimer: Remember when I said: "without any prior assumptions"? That is a lie. There is one tiny assumption I made, which is how often bench players are subbed on. I guesstimated this to happen approximately 10% of the time.)
My wife’s brother and his wife are visiting from out of state and we were hanging out drinking and my brother in law told the story of how he got an earring and his dad blew his top. My wife and his wife both said how it was a terrible example of toxic masculinity. I objected to the term, and they both immediately started talking over me and explaining it to me. I get there are toxic elements of gender roles. That expectations of what it is to be a ‘man’ can be harmful and pointless. Thats not the issue. The issue is that, if I identify as masculine, and I dont want you to use the phrase ‘toxic masculinity’, then you have two options: respect it, or say my feelings just dont matter. Trying to tell me something along the lines of ‘toxic masculinity doesnt mean masculinity is toxic, quit being so offended’ just doesnt wash for me. Replace ‘masculinity’ with any other gender, race, or ableness and youd never use that term in front of someone and have the audacity to explain to them that its only a ‘certain type’ of who they are that’s wrong. Not in a million years. Because its just gross, tbh. Now if you tell me ‘masculinity has screwed it up. Men are in power and its not right and theyve abdicated the right to be respected and honored and theyre kicked out of the equation. We’re moving on without you and we’ll just push you out of the way’, ok. I get that. But telling me toxic masculinity is not insulting masculinity and a gender identification, sorry. Just cant buy it. Anyway i f’d up and said that and it was dead silence and now somehow my relationships with these two women is altered forever. Tldr; I objected to the term ‘toxic masculinity’ as a gender slur and now my wife and sister in law despise and deride me. edit: a couple missed words, bad language Further edit: thanks this helped me realize ‘toxic masculinity’ is clear hate speech. There were some valiant attempts to gaslight me into hating myself for needing to defend my gender identity, and some attempts at rationalizing away the obvious, which didn’t hold up under scrutiny and were abandoned by all but the most dogmatic. I think we’ll look back at this term in 10 years with embarrassment. Edit 3: I think I’m going to propose the term “identity issue constellation” (bringing it back to Jung).. there are constellations of issues around identities. Can we tackle the issues while preserving the identities? Can we agree that one’s self identification is sacred, whether it be gender, sexuality, race or religion? And when issues are identified constellated around those identities can we talk about them without tearing down the identity itself? I think this is a framework for rich debate, growth and collaboration. So I suppose in the case of defining an issue as ‘toxic masculinity’, the more evolved term would be ‘a problem within the constellation of masculinity’. Then we could talk about whether its a problem of society or culture or privilege or oppression or language or an individual, and preserve the dignity and respect of a self-chosen identity. Because, of course, there are indeed problems at all those levels for literally every identity. In the end we have to decide whether people get to keep them while we talk about those problems, or whether they have to be torn down as integral to the debate. JP’s assertion that various non-binary pronouns be rejected would be an example of the latter, and I think its wrong and what has gotten people in the social justice community so hurt and angry. I think a much more useful approach would be to say ‘there are problems in the constellation of non-binary gender identification’, like, we have to update the survey questions to include 1,000 pronouns. That is a separate problem from ‘ridiculous non-binaryism’, which is just a sad and hurtful reduction.
The mayor of Bozeman, Chris Mhel, is accused of being overly aggressive by multiple people. This is a copy of an email I received in regards to that.
September 7, 2020 Labor Day Members of the Bozeman City Commission, Because I cannot remain silent if I deserve to have any claim to continue to care about the rights, safety, equitable and fair treatment of women to advance gender and all equity in our community, I will do this as an individual and not on behalf of any organization. Preparing and sharing this Statement does not give me any pleasure and I hated to have to go through the pain of these records and memories again in order to respond. These statements of harmful and harassing treatment toward Bozeman City employees by our Mayor strongly influenced me that we who have suffered or witnessed this must step forward. I strongly urge everyone who is reading or listening to this - PLEASE review ALL the attached Freedom Of Information Act (FOIA) documents from our current and former City Employees – many from women, but not all – to understand this: those leaders appearing to be women-supporting, liberal or even progressive men who are in power can and in this case with the Mayor, have profoundly harmed our City’s workforce including the 1st and only women City Manager, many have said was our most successful ever. And most employees who all want the Mayor removed. From the Bozeman City Commission Agenda for September 8, 2020, the FOIA Documents – open to read all 3 sections plus those from Commissioner Cunningham (total of 4): Discussion of Documents Related to Public Records Requests (Sullivan) I am writing and speaking about my experiences with Chris Mehl, from and since April 19, 2018. This date is when a leader of a local women’s business organization and I had a meeting with then Deputy Mayor Mehl (DM) to share and exchange around our City for CEDAW women’s human rights campaign to create safe, equitable and fair employment and living conditions in our community. Our meeting goal, quite simply in the same manner of our successful Equal Pay for Equal Work Resolution adopted by the City three years earlier, was to meet with each City Commissioner for an opportunity to educate, exchange around and get their advice about our proposed policy to advance women’s human rights in the workplace, schools, and our overall community through adoption of an Ordinance or Resolution. Over 70 Cities large and small throughout the U.S. have done this. Because at that time Mayor Andrus chose not to meet with any representatives of our campaign, the DM indicated he would stand in for the Mayor and learn more himself. I also indicated to the DM that there would be another representative from the local women’s business organization - a part of our City for CEDAW Leadership team who would join me. In our thorough preparation to meet with the DM – as with every Commission and community leader - we reached out to other current and former City leaders about how to approach and what best to say. At that time, I was warned by several of them that the DM “had a temper” and then I also shared that with this leader accompanying me, having no idea what that information could truly mean to each of us and our lives following. We spent an hour on April 19, 2018 from 4:00-5:00 pm at Sola Café, at the request of the DM, with several other customers nearby in the back section. While we had a carefully prepared outline of talking points of why we are requesting this now and how a policy to advance the human rights of all women and girls could benefit the City of Bozeman, we of course wanted to hear and address the DM’s questions and concerns. This meeting began by the DM with heated accusations made in anger and outrage to us in a shouting communication style about the fact that we dared to ask for this policy and goal – especially since the DM stated the Mayor already said she wouldn’t meet with our Campaign and didn’t we already have an Equal Pay Resolution. He then moved into accusatory rapid talking points ranging from how adopting a women’s human rights ordinance would cost at least $500,000 to conduct a City needs assessment to identify and address evidence of measurable gender and other discrimination and how could we waste the City’s tax dollars that way…..and the fact that children in our City have food insecurity and why should we fund a study instead of feeding the children? In trying to even answer or explore options we couldn’t get a word in for the first 30-45 minutes of his berating, bulling, belittlement and harassing “leadership style” that appeared to communicate his job was to intimidate and diminish us to the point that we would never return to the Mayor or City nor continue to educate and advance for any further women’s human rights. As we tried to both indicate that such a study was important to identify evidence of where gender and other discrimination existed in the institutions and sectors of our City and also recommend best practices to eradicate them – as recently well demonstrated by the Bozeman United for Racial Justice which only required 2 Marches of thousands of Bozeman residents and we congratulate them! – would cost from $10-20K and we already planned to ask other organizations for their support including MSU, Women’s Foundations, donors and more! In addition, if there was great urgency about Bozeman children’s food security, our Campaign’s issue as well - the results of our study was intended to strategically focus scarce tax dollars on which of our children and families needed assistance. And from lived experience - we know many of them were likely from single parent, underpaid, women-headed households. And that a gender analysis that included race/ethnicity, income, age and more would benefit all city policies, strategic planning, budgeting and employee workplace conditions beyond pay equity disparities to include prevention of sexual, racial harassment and other corrosive and harmful behaviors. But the DM couldn’t or wouldn’t listen until the final few minutes of this torturous hour when we calmed him down and pointed out some of the less costly or free policies other 70 Cities for CEDAW in the US have used to further women’s safety and economic security in their communities. Meanwhile those Sola Café customers and staff also witnessed the DM “leadership style” and more. After he left, we were asked,” who was that?” We said, “that’s your upcoming Mayor.” After the DM left, the volunteer leader and I tried to debrief this experience because this was so shocking - this was way more than a “Temper” issue - and appeared to be a pattern if we needed to be forewarned before meeting with the DM. In preparation for this Statement to the Commission, I needed to review and decided I will share my notes exchanged with my colleague from that DM meeting - written a day later, April 20, 2018: Quite honestly I did not expect the level to which I felt he [DM] was bullying, belittling and setting up so much opposition that he really didn't want to know any answers to the questions; he simply wanted to use them as a chance to humiliate us. I'm very, very angry and very unhappy about what he did; it was totally unnecessary and it was not fitting for a Deputy Mayor and future Mayor of our community. I'm going to be meeting with [another leader] today about their liaison with the School Board and I'm going to let them know some of what happened and get advice. I am drafting a letter this morning to Chris that follows up with Cyndy's email and why the over 20 people that were consulted about this Campaign did not see it as he did, because I don't think again he read this information very carefully. I'm going to ask you to look at it if you don't mind and share it with [ ] when I meet her with her tomorrow before I send it out. I don't want to do anything in anger. So I'm venting a little but you were wonderful and honestly we didn't need to come in with a bargaining position. We were there to learn what concerns he and the other Commissioners have: - I had asked Chris specifically in other emails if "you are able to generally support it", or "what exactly can you support" and that was what I thought the basis of the meeting was going to be about.
And I am feeling at this moment including in the follow-up email that summarizes our meeting content the question of:
Since you have so many objections to Our proposed [Bozeman for CEDAW] Ordinance as a model to achieve gender equity in our city, what is a process or framework that can allow the city to stand for gender equity and the health, dignity and safety of women and girls that is of substance and can be acceptable to the city? The ball is in his court or their court if he's really representing Cyndy Andrus as well. But she would not behave this way - that is for sure. You were great and I couldn't have done it; I couldn't have stood it without you. I honestly did not know that this is what his "temper" is about and it's bad for the City of Bozeman. Thank you again and so sorry we both had to put up with this and quite frankly it's why we need a city ordinance when you have leadership or bosses who treat women like this. It's called gender-based verbal violence and sexual harassment and we are Me Too. This is what happened, and now I’d like to add why this matters and why our City leadership and community should care and act. Even though I and the other leader have had to handle other very sexist and sexual harassing situations as well as gender-based violence over our lives, much like every woman – including death threats when I co-founded a program and shelter to address gender-based violence now called The HAVEN – the harsh impacts of DM’s verbal abuse was compounded because of his power as the DM and as incoming Bozeman Mayor. Having never received any apology or clarification about his “leadership style” or any follow up whatsoever from the DM, we drafted several versions of our own follow-up letter to the DM. This letter became so diplomatic to save our women’s rights cause and thus did not adequately address his abuse of power in order to avoid retaliation. Finally we resolved to focus our goal to create and institutionalize policies advancing women’s rights and safety and, now ironically, we decided not to send our letter to the DM. We never even thought this opportunity would occur to address what we now know is a long-standing pattern of the DM’s verbal form of gender-based violence. Instead, what I did is reach out to other leaders in our community to get their advice and felt afterwards that we were not taken seriously and always, in many ways spoken or by inaction, were told the DM’s contributions were more important than his “temper.” But we also learned from other discussions that we were not the only women affected by this pattern of abuse and fear of retaliation. When Mayor Andrus did reach out to me to schedule a meeting in June, 2018, about our City for CEDAW women’s human rights campaign following a City Commission meeting presentation earlier in May with over 100 supporters and nearly 1,000 signatures on our Petition, she wanted the DM to be present. I refused and told her why (correspondence in the other documents) and, upon request, followed up with Mayor Andrus in a lengthy phone call to provide specific examples and details from the meeting with the DM on April 19th. We were grateful she didn’t include him in that meeting. Another result both of us decided for ourselves and the Cities for CEDAW campaign after this April 19th meeting was either to not ever work or meet with the DM or at least always have 3-5 people present to prevent his harmful behavior from bullying and attempting to intimidate us again. Sadly, I also substantially reduced my and our expectations of what could be achieved for the creation of an Ordinance or Resolution to advance women’s human rights as Bozeman policy since that meeting. And as the DM moved into the role of Mayor, this was another way to prevent his attacks. Again, at the painful expense of the most vulnerable women we wanted this human rights policy, education and research to serve. The other volunteer leader quit working with the Equal Pay Resolution and this organization in order to not have to work with Mayor Mehl. She has shared her own story to this effect. Our lived experience as women, men and non-binary people of sexual, racial and/or other harassment and related violence in paid or volunteer workplaces and community leadership - along with the emerging research which is so badly needed here for the City and other workplaces - is now becoming more understood about its breadth and depth. We also know from the #ME TOO Movement that liberal White men – especially when holding the most prominent positions - can present as supporters of women and progressive causes, but do NOT walk their talk. After reading – and I so strong urge everyone who is reading or listening to this, PLEASE review ALL the attached the FOIA documents from our current and former City Employees – many from women, but not all – to understand this: those leaders appearing to be women-supporting, liberal or even progressive leaders who are in power can, and in this case, the Mayor has profoundly harmed our City’s workforce including the 1st and only women City Manager, who many have said was our most successful top Administrator ever. And this “leadership style” has been experienced by other current and previous Commissioners, members of Citizen Advisory Boards, business owners and many more we will never hear from who are also afraid to come forward because if the Mayor is not removed, they will be afraid of retaliation as am I and my colleague. Thinking about future City policies that advance gender and other equity, diversity and inclusion in our community and its workplace, how can anyone feel secure, much less “welcome” in their desire to contribute to our City, as a volunteer or employee, when they learn about this fully documented, unprofessional behavior of our Mayor in violation of the City’s own policies - carefully demonstrated over 2 years with extensive evidence in the FOIA documents by former City Managers Andrea Surratt and Dennis Taylor - if then no substantive action is taken? Now my colleague and I know – the Mayor’s "leadership style" as he defines this – was never only targeted at us, but directed widely, impacting a lot of women at all levels of employment and in our community, including current and former Commissioners, with all harmed in some way. I truly regret that we did not send our fully detailed letter of DM’s bullying, abusive and gender-based harassing treatment to the Mayor and other City leaders two years ago, or had been encouraged to file an Ethics Board complaint, but we believed it would probably be used against us and the organizations we cared about. I ask the City Commissioners on behalf of all who have suffered, been diminished, been humiliated, been afraid and been denied their ability to work in safety and dignity, to change our City’s elected Mayoral leadership now. Thank you, Jan Strout (she/hers) Bozeman, MT
Composition Challenge #25: September 14, 2020 – Sonata Form, Part 1: Exposition
Greetings, /musictheory! Welcome to our composition challenge. This is a space to put theory into practice by writing your own original music. An archive of all composition challenges, past and present, can be found in the wiki. This challenge thread will be stickied from September 14 through October 5.
The emphasis here is on skill acquisition. In order to build a knowledge base that will enable you to engage with the larger corpus of music theory and analysis, observe the following:
Satisfy all items on the challenge prompt. There is always room to write in excess of the prompt, but you should solve the compositional problems given in the challenge.
Post submissions as replies to this thread.
There is no deadline to submit and we encourage you to explore these prompts whenever you feel like it. However, know that challenge threads will be un-stickied and will receive less attention after the first Monday of the next month.
Compose a two-part sonata form exposition for piano. (The next challenge will involve crafting a development section and recapitulation, so don't worry about the rest of the form just yet.)
Use the formal scheme P TR MC S C. (See theory section for details.)
If P is in the major mode, S should be in the dominant key.
If P is in the minor mode, S should be in the relative major key or the minor dominant key.
Use periods and/or sentences as the basis of your P and S themes.
Use a linear intervallic pattern (LIP) somewhere in your exposition.
This challenge uses terminology and concepts from James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy's landmark treatise, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata. You will construct a Type-3 sonata, as this is what most sources mean when they say "sonata form." This is your Exposition/Development/Recapitulation model, where a tonal and rhetorical problem is set up in the exposition and eventually worked out by the time the recapitulation rolls around. This is what a two-part exposition looks like. You will be composing one of these. Observe the tonal plan and arrangement of items. And here is a zoomed out vie of a Type-3 Sonata Form. (Both diagrams are from page 17 of Hepokoski & Darcy's book.)
The first theme and the beginning of sonata space; sets the feel for the movement.
Facilitates the modulation from the home key to the new key in the exposition. Recomposed in the recapitulation so that it doesn't modulate. Builds energy.
A cadence followed by a rest that separates TR from S.
Structurally and sometimes rhetorically opposes P.
Essential Expositional Closure
The cadential goal of an exposition. The first cadence after S in the expo.
Essential Structural Closure
The cadential goal of a recapitulation and of the whole movement. The first cadence after S in the recap.
Postcadential material that follows S and concludes a rotation of sonata space. May be as little as a small codetta, may include a genuine closing theme, may have several modules.
Thematic areas may contain more than one "theme," but for this exercise try to focus on producing one really good P theme and one really good S theme. Videos:
Linear intervallic patterns are voice-leading patterns that prolong a harmony and possibly bridge the space between two structural chords. Sequences are built upon LIPs, but not all LIPs are sequences.
The primary theme and transition of Mozart's C major piano sonata, K.545, contains a sequence/LIP. Analysis. Note that P is a sentence ending on a half-cadence (with the continuation prolonged by its merger with TR). These things don't have to be long; the total path from P to the MC only takes 12 measures in this sonata.
Beethoven - Piano Sonata No. 19, Op.49, No.1, I. / Score – P is a modulating period (with a sentential antecedent!), where the consequent also acts as the TR. There is no MC here (rather, it is filled in — called "caesura fill"). The S theme is a parallel period beginning at m.16; the consequent begins at m.21 and goes to m.25, but then consequent repeats (what Janet Schmalfeldt calls the "one more time" technique), so the resolution happens at the downbeat of m.29. The C zone is just 4 measures with a pickup, from mm.30-33 (derived from the beginning of S). Also, if you're following the video, the score is Heinrich Schenker's edition, which inexplicably has the measure numbers at the end of the measure, making it look like the measure numbers are one bar off from where they should be.
Marianne von Martinez – Piano Sonata No. 3 in E Major / Score — Kind of a cool thing going on here. Here is the exposition analyzed. First off, notice that there are two themes in the S group: one is a sentence (S1), the other is a period (S2). S2 elides with the beginning of the Closing Zone, and C itself is basically the material of P and TR transposed into the dominant key. It's a little unusual but not unheard of. This movement is actually a Type-2 Sonata Form (the so-called "binary" sonata form), but since we're only looking at the exposition, that doesn't matter so much for us right now. However, the fact that the C zone is so P/TR-based plays into the rotational nature of the Type-2.
Joseph Haydn – Keyboard Sonata in E minor, Hob.XVI:34/ Score – Here's one in the minor mode. Here is the exposition analyzed. The P theme is a parallel period with a modulation. I'm not really sure what the TR is supposed to be doing here, since it's basically just hanging out in the new key the entire time. It's interesting to note that in the recapitulation, P and TR are chopped up and put back together as the presentation and continuation of a sentence respectively. (And I'm sure there are other interpretations.) I have the theme type for S identified as a "phrase group," which John David White in The Analysis of Music defines as such: "A group of three or more phrases linked together without the two-part feeling of a period can be termed a phrase-group. Phrase-group is also the appropriate label for a pair of consecutive phrases in which the first is a repetition of the second or in which, for whatever reason, the antecedent-consequent relationship is absent (46)." In this case, we are dealing with the last option.
You can find links to a variety of notation programs in the wiki.
Unpopular Opinion: I have no problem with being a gamer, but it shouldn't be your entire personality
Growing up in the state of California, I have had a fair amount of interaction with those who identify with the gamer community in my day-to-day life—a number of my friends are members. However, a certain issue between myself and members of the community has arisen to the point where I feel like I'm getting crushed from some huge weight that I desperately want to get off of my chest: the (for the lack of a better word) gamerness of the gaming community is not a sensical personality trait. I get that people are proud of being a Gamer (I am proud of them too) but a gaming preference is not a quality of character, and I believe that it is self-demeaning to suggest that you, as a human-being, are defined by whether you like the Witcher 3, Mario, or whatever; you are so much more. There is more to what makes a person than their gaming preference. People are amiable, loyal, flexible, exciting, among other things. If you belittle yourself down to being a gamer, non-gamer, etc. as a principle constitution to the whole of your personality, then you need to really consider taking some time out of your day to reevaluate yourself and what really makes you, well, you. But if you take your gamer identity or PC master race or whatever word is used for things outside the basic binary of Ps4/xbox fans (besides for natural mutations like Switch fans) and that becomes central to who you are? The most important thing about you as a person? Then good gods you must be boring. Sure. Some of it is desensitization I suppose. Throw it in peoples faces until they stop caring. But what you are is so unimportant in the scheme of things compared to what you could say or accomplish. I don't really see why someone would choose something as unimportant as gaming as the thing to define themselves by and I tend to think less of people who do this. The only time I think your gaming and console preference should matter is when you're dealing with a potential game you want to play. If you want to fight for equal rights for gamers that's fine, and I totally support that, but I would rather not have to hear about how CDPR is a god-tier pro-consumer company in EVERY conversation. EDIT: A few people have been complaining about the frequency they see a similar opinion. I would like to hold that I have never seen it on this subreddit myself. I posted this here not because I want karma, attention, or whatever you “woke” people think I would want, but because this personality crisis actually bothers me, and I want to voice out my opinion like everybody else on here. I’ve brought this up with my real-life friends before, and they just accused me of being a gamerphobe, so turning to reddit seemed like a good option. Also, if this is such a common opinion posted on here, to the point where it’s been normalized as a popular opinion, why the heck do people still present their gamer identity as their personality? It makes no logical sense, and no reply that I have gotten has ever tried to justify it.
A very long, very indepth attempt at analizing Teemo
Warning, this is extremely long. Like 12 pages on a google doc long. You have been warned.
So there has been a lot of discussion about Teemo recently, from what his iconic skills are(all of them), to what items he can build(all of them), to what position he can be played in(... all of them), and it’s kinda went nowhere fast as Teemo, and by extension his player base, is just too flexible to be defined in any of these ways. So what actually makes Teemo unique? His playstyle. Teemo is an old style of champion. I'm not talking about his art, or his kit(though both of these are technically also true), I'm talking about how Teemo’s goal isn’t to all in and combo his opponent down on their first mistake and snowball from there, but rather to create a lead from dozens of small victories. Your goal isn’t necessarily kill your opponent (though that’s always good) but to force them back, causing them to miss cs and xp repeatedly, or waste their time smashing blindly into a bush. And later in the game, while, again, killing people is now the goal, forcing them to have to back after tripping a few shrooms, or leading them on a fruitless chase through the jungle after splitpushing are just as useful to Teemo. If I had to describe Teemo's playstyle, it would be
Attritional, Rapid Force, Psycologically Manipulative, War Mastermind of Breakdown
I'm only half joking, as even though this is from a Spongebob theory video on Plankton, it actually describes Teemo to some degree. As The Theorizer(the guy who made the video Im referencing) put it:
Attritional, someone who engages in attrition warfare. Rapid force, very fast, very hard attacks. Psychologically manipulative, basically, very good at trickery and getting people to do what you want. War mastermind, well duh, someone who is good with war. Breakdown, to break something down.
Only instead of getting a burger recipe, we are getting our enemies to tilt. But with every new release Teemo has gotten more and more outclassed, as his opponents get more and more mobility that a small 10-52% movespeed boost can’t escape from. We all recognize that Teemo needs a rework, a Morgana/Ezreal level rework that modernizes Teemo’s kit without changing its functionality that much, but a rework nonetheless. Last year u/RiotJag attempted to do a mini rework on Teemo, starting with this:
Base Mana Regen increased from 1.92 to 2.5 Mana Regen per level increased from 0.09 to 0.15 Mana/lvl up increased from 20 to 25 Toxic Shot (Passive) Teemo’s basic attacks now deal 10-50 bonus magic damage and leave a Poison DoT that deals 24-192 magic damage over 4 seconds. Toxic Shot damage (both the on-hit and the DoT) is amped by 50% whenever there are other Poison debuffs on the target Blinding Dart (Q) Base damage lowered from 80/125/170/215/260 to 80/115/150/185/220 AP Ratio lowered from 0.8 to 0.6 Now is a Poison Debuff Move Quick (W) No longer breaks stealth Guerilla Warfare (E) [New Active] After a 1 second delay, Teemo enters Camouflage for 3-5 seconds. Teemo is slowed by 25/22.5/20/17.5/15% during this effect, and gains 20/30/40/50/60% Attack Speed for 3 seconds when it ends. Camouflage does not tick down while Teemo is in a brush or is standing still. Noxious Trap (R) Base Damage lowered from 200/325/450 to 150/250/350 AP ratio lowered from 0.5 to 0.4 Mushrooms health increased from from [6 at all ranks] to [6/8/10] Mushroom max ammo count up from [3 at all ranks] to [3/4/5]
And then after a few iterations it ended up like this
Base Mana Regen increased from 1.92 to 2.5 Mana Regen per level increased from 0.09 to 0.15 Mana/lvl up increased from 20 to 25 Base damage lowered from 54 to 51 Attack speed per level lowered from 3.38 to 2 Toxic Shot (Passive) Teemo’s basic attacks now deal 8-50 bonus magic damage and leave a Poison DoT that deals 24-180 magic damage over 4 seconds. Toxic Shot damage (both the on-hit and the DoT) is amped by 50% whenever there are other Poison debuffs on the target Blinding Dart (Q) Base damage lowered from 80/125/170/215/260 to 70/105/140/175/210 mana cost increased from 70/75/80/85/90 to 80/85/90/95/100 AP Ratio lowered from 0.8 to 0.6 Now is a Poison Debuff Move Quick (W) No longer breaks stealth Guerilla Warfare (E) Cooldown: 40/37/34/31/28
[New] "After a 1 second delay, Teemo becomes Invisible indefinitely if standing still or in brush, and can move up to 7/7.5/8/8.5/9 Teemos while out of brush, but any non-periodic damage from champions will break him out. Teemo can see 25% farther while stealthed. Upon breaking Guerilla Warfare, Teemo gains 20/30/40/50/60% Attack Speed for 3 seconds. While on cooldown, standing in brush will tick down guerilla Warfare's cooldown faster." Stealth duration while moving: 2/2.25/2.5/2.75/3 >Noxious Trap (R) Base Damage lowered from 200/325/450 to 150/250/350 AP ratio lowered from 0.5 to 0.4 Mushroom max ammo count up from [3 at all ranks] to [3/4/5] Traps now become invisible after 1 second Traps can continue to bounce on other traps Additionally there were these prospective changes that were scrapped due to the community’s disinterest in the rework direction.
"Most recent version in testing was pretty E focused as follows (differences all versus previous prototype version, not versus live Teemo): - No longer granted extra sight range - CD didn't tick down faster in brush - Distance while invisible up a bit - CD lower - Standing in brush slowly replenished distance Teemo could move while invisible Haven't heard how playtesting with that went though. Expect this will likely continue as a slow burn project rather than something that gets released or killed quickly, especially given it's the secondary priority of the designer working on it."
After it was scrapped we got the quality of life buffs that we have now. But lets discuss the rework. I honestly thing that the _concept_ is the best shot at reworking Teemo. The numbers and exact implementation are debatable, but switching e and passive is a great idea as, after the shrooms, Teemo’s on hit poision is his most iconic ability. Not to mention it freed Teemo up to be able to max his abilities depending on what he needed for his matchup, rather than e max always, and then either q or w depending on choice. The things people didn’t like about it though were:
The shrooms being nerfed damage wise.
I understand this one, Doomshroom Teemo is my favorite build, but his shrooms are problematic in their current state as they take up a large amount of Teemo's power budget, but also can amount to nothing as the enemy gets 5 sweepers and clears all of them. Not to mention how they synergize so well with Liandrie’s that its a core item for Teemo, despite the fact that his q, the only other ability that can proc it, does not utilize it all that well due to being a medium cooldown, single target spell that can only proc it once. And this is going to be a problem, as in the item update Liandries will be a mythic item, and Teemo builds Liandries [77.5% of the time!](https://www.leagueofgraphs.com/champions/items/teemo) To put this into perspective, Nashors tooth is only bought 61.5% of the time. An item that gives Teemo every stat he wants regardless of build(ignoring Tankmo) and reinforces Teemo's main damage outlet(basically increases e's on-hit damage by 150-30% depending on e rank, and the on-hit scaling from .3 to .45 AP), is bought 16.5% less often than an item that only synergizes with one skill. If this continues after the update, which it likely will as Liandries increases Shroom damage by 20-200%(depending on when it's bought, the target hit, and other items bought. The 200% would be lvl 1 ult, no other ap, and an 1000 health target with 50 mr) and its being _buffed_ via the mythic item stat bonus, that will be above the threshold that will cause Teemo to be changed due to [hardbinding](https://na.leagueoflegends.com/en-us/news/dev/dev-updated-approach-to-item-balancing/). Unless Zyra and Brand also buy it at the same rates after the update(as that would trigger the “nerf item” option), but unlike Teemo the item actually synergizes with their entire kit(plants and blaze, which utilize every ability) rather than just one ability.
It didn’t improve the w
This was a major hole in the rework, as while switching e and p is great, it wouldn’t be awful if they stayed the same. Meanwhile Teemo’s w is supposed to put the “swift” in his title of Swift Scout, and it does so… barely. Exactly what should happen with it is, as always, up to debate, but it needs changing to be on par with current LoL as the current w is supposed to help Teemo kite, yet even if you dodge everything thrown at you it can get disabled by a ludens proc hitting an ally.
The camo stealth makes him a worse Twitch.
This is half true. The first one, yes absolutely. But it didn’t stay as a camouflage ability. Sure, both are marksmen that can go invisible, but Twitch’s is for long distances and to keep him safe while he positions to obliterate the enemy team from 800 range, while Teemo’s is restricted range wise, and is more useful to dodge enemy's notice or wait for them to come to you rather than you going to them. At that point, they only share the fact that they both come out of stealth to surprise people(and a DOT, if 30 damage after 6 attacks at lvl 18 deserves to be called one), which every camoflage user does And my own complaint about both proposed rework and live Teemo:
His kit has limited synergy.
Each part of Teemo's kit doesn't help the other parts very much. Over the years Teemo players have worked the separate parts of his kit into a cohesive playstyle, but each part of his kit just does it's own thing. Like for instance, in theory his blind should support keeping his w up, but in reality every champ, even Udyr, has a non auto attack way of hitting Teemo(Udyr typically has smite and he always can rush up to you with Bear and activate Phoenix stance), and many have attacks that are undodgable(unless you count not being in range to be targeted as dodging it, which for many champs is just being outside Teemo's attack range). So, where should we go from here?
Well, we should discuss the purpose of his abilities.
If every part of his kit is iconic, and replacing them completely would change Teemo in a way that the playerbase wouldn’t like, then we should decide what role each of his abilities plays in his playstyle, and how they could be changed to better fit them.
This is the base of Teemo’s kit. Doing DOT damage after autoing someone is key to Teemo's attritional playstyle in lane, and hit and run/kiting playstyle later in the game. It has a decent base damage and a great scaling, and is just as useful for pure AP builds as on hit ones. It does exactly what it needs to, nothing about it needs to be changed.
Teemo's reactive defense in a fight. On one hand, it's extremely powerful as can completely shut down the main damage of auto reliant champions(Yi, Udyr, some ADC's) for up to 2.5 seconds, provided they don't have on hit effects that ignore the blind and hit anyway. On the other hand, it's completely useless against every other type of champ(mages, assassins, tanks, spellslinger ADC's, most Juggernauts). Its not healthy for Teemo's main defensive tool to be useless(or of limited use, as I counted champs like Nunu who auto attack, but don't rely on it to do their job as part of it being useless) against 70% of the champion roster. As people have talked about, Teemo _needs_ this in order to stay safe, yet in most of his matchups(regardless of role) it can't do anything to protect him, let alone later in the game when he has to face the other 4 enemy champs. And that's not counting the fact that ranged auto's that are in transit before the blind hits are not blocked, which means that even against a Vayne with Condenm on cooldown, it still can’t keep Teemo’s w up as even if you blind her first chance she probably will have lanched an auto already.
If blinding dart is a reactive defense, then Move Quick is supposed to be Teemo's proactive defense. When he was added, it allowed him to more easily kite slower enemy champions as there were fewer speedboosts and dashes, and in general lower mobility. Nowadays, the passive is deactivated rather quickly in a fight, and 3 seconds of MS isnt enough to give him a fighting chance of escaping/keeping up. The intention of the skill is to allow Teemo greater kiting potential in fights, while giving enemies a way to shut it down to have a chance of catching Teemo. But the reality is that unless you are against a champ like Garen who has zero ranged attacks, you are not going to be able to keep it active, making it feel like an out of combat passive. The issue is keeping the balance between Teemo having kiting power in a fight, and allowing enemies a chance to slow down Teemo, because whether we like it or not, Riot does want enemies to be able to catch kiting champs like Teemo, Kalista, and Ashe, because they would be horrible to play against otherwise. Right now, the balance is heavily skewed towards enemies, as any kind of damage will reduce Teemo's ability to kite enemies with matching boots to a singular 3 second burst for the rest of the fight.
The most underultilized part of Teemo's kit. In its current form it's incredibly strong, yet is extremely situational. Its a decent strategic option for positioning mid game, as it can allow you to dodge an enemy(providing they didn't see you yet), or allow you to ambush people, but to use it offensively requires an enemy to come to you as you can only move inside bushes, and defensively it's limited to: Dodging people that have not seen you Becoming invincible to enemies that only have point and click damage(Vayne, Yi,) Stalling for time so an ally can come save you For such an integral part of Teemo’s kit… it feels a little tacked on. Its a situational fight opener or utility tool, and any attempt to use it while near enemy champs usually ends up with them knowing where you are and throwing skillshot after skillshot at you. Its not _bad,_ but to say it can’t be improved would be a lie. Personally I like the sound of that last version, as it would differentiate between Teemo’s e and Twitch’s q, while fitting into Teemo’s playstyle nicely(or, at least, I already dash from bush to bush while in the enemy jungle to check if the coast is clear. Not sure about the rest of you). The fact that you would have to “charge up” movement time by staying in bushes helps give the feel that you are creeping around, without actually slowing Teemo down like the first version of the change.
Shrooms have 3 main uses: Damage, be it wearing down enemies as they attempt to move throughout the map, making it so they always enter fights below full health or killing low health fleeing enemies Granting vision of important areas, such as Dragon, Baron, and the enemy jungler's camps(or your jungle camps, if your jungler is being invaded) CC, cutting off engage or escape paths, slowing enemies so that Teemo/his team have a chance to escape/engage. Right now they do all of these well, except damage vs tanks, and don't have to be changed. But like I pointed out before Liandries is a massive amount of their power, and that isn't healthy as unless you are planning on ignoring the shrooms damage completely you have to buy it, and mythinc item, hardbinding, yada yada yada.... So if the Shrooms are changed they should aim to keep the same power, but less oppressive against squishes and more effective(or, rather, less ineffective) against tanky targets without having to rely on Liandries to the point where its a core item even against full squishy teams.
Suggestions on what could change
The only thing I would change about it is move it's ticks from 1/s to 4/s, like Singe's poison, Karthus's aoe, or 2/s like Casdiopia's poison. It would give a better readability on the damage for everyone involved, which, while it is a slight nerf to Teemo, clarity changes that increase counterplay allow for more power to be added elsewhere. Also, unlike Singer's poison or Karthus's e, Teemo doesn't have a "turn on for one tick to farm and turn off" mechanic for his poison like they did, so other than age I can't think of why it is one second between ticks. The ‘surprise’ factor of how much damage it does is good for Teemo, but how much damage the enemy is taking shouldn't be something that is obscured.
The simplest change would be to make it apply nearsighted, which would have 3 effects.
make it less of a hard counter to melee auto centric champs,while still allowing it utility
Improves its usability against all kinds of champs, and opens up more uses than "damage" and "no auto attack for you"
Allows Teemo to actually participate in gurilla warfare, making it possible for him to pop up, attack, and disappear on an enemy champ, providing he is outside their truncated vision range.
I have other ideas as to what can be done with this ability, but it makes more sense in context so that will be below.
I have two ideas for how this could be changed to be better:
It does not break on damage from poisoned enemies, as well as increasing it to 10-30% because round numbers.
This one is kinda obvious of how it helps Teemo, but I like it because it allows Teemo to keep his speed if he gets the drop on enemies, but if they get in the first attack then they are rewarded with a Teemo that is easier to catch.
Teemo’s base MS down to 325 (WAIT, don’t crucify me just yet), and decrease the % MS boost from 10-26% to 10-19%, and then add on +5-25 base MS per rank.
Now that sounds broken, as an increase of 5 base ms is a huge increase in winrate usually, but hear me out. Rank 1: Teemo would have 325+5+10%= 330+10%=363 which is exactly the same as live. Rank 2: Teemo would have 325+10+12.25%= 335+12.25%=376 the same as live. Rank 3: Teemo would have 325+15+14.5%= 340+14.5%=389 the same as live. Rank 4: Teemo would have 325+20+16.75%= 345+16.75%=403 the same as live. Rank 5: Teemo would have 325+25+19%= 350+19%=416 the same as live. Though a note is that with boots, ranks 1-4 actually give less ms than live. Its only 5-1 ms difference, which may not even end up showing up after the Movement speed soft caps apply. Except for Mobie boots, there is a significant difference there after the MS cap, but Teemo only builds them .03% of the time or so, and they are deactivated whenever someone trips a shroom, so that’s a sacrifice I'm willing to make. The only noticeable thing that would change is how fast Teemo is when the passive is down, and how fast he is when using the w active(if im doing the math right it is slower by a max of 18 ms, with Mobie boots, but that makes sense as we are dropping 14% bonus ms on the w active in exchange for 25 flat ms, which means less of a boost with just it, but it scales better with other % movement boosts) [Here is my compiled list of Teemo’s movement speed with every kind of boot + w](https://docs.google.com/document/d/1mkKCcFzXV8PbXseYadoi6z1rs9SN0xGRCFMjw4z3Ito/edit?usp=sharing), and [here is a graph that allows you to easily put in the variables if you want to check it out yourself](https://www.desmos.com/calculatoirneett3wh).
In addition to the prospective changes that we never saw, which to me sounds like the best version(assuming the numbers are not terrible), here are a few ideas I thought of: Teemo’s e breaks on damage outside bushes, but while inside a bush Teemo is obscured(you know, that broken “true stealth” thing Akali had, only there are no bushes inside tower range and Teemo doesn’t have 3 dashes so it should be less obnoxious) and the invisibility doesn’t break. What this basically means is if an enemy hits a scyre bloom or an ability that gives true sight on Teemo when he is inside a bush, he is still not able to be clicked on. Standing still for 1 second increases shroom vision range over the next two seconds. I like this one, as it enhances the scouting aspect of his theme, but enemies can interact with it and it has to be something Teemo is actively doing, rather than just passive extra vision.
Assuming we are touching these, I honestly think having it apply % current health(better against tanks, not as oppressive against squishies), along with the passive poison would allow it to function both as a weakening chip damage, and potential low health killer, without getting into the 2 shot shroom territory as that feels bad to be on the end of. They should be able to kill if you run into a ton of them in a row, but not automatic death after hitting one from a fed Teemo. I honestly haven’t thought of a better way other than that to keep the balance between chip damage and kill threat without entering the binary “die by 2 shrooms or 5 Sweepers” territory And now for my Rework suggestion(do note that while I have considered the numbers I gave things, numbers are easily changed about and as such laying out the mechanics is my goal):
Toxic Shot Teemo laces his attacks with poison from his Kumongu shrooms, causing his basic attacks to deal [10-50 + .3 AP] damage, and his basic attacks and spells to poison the target for [1.5-11.25 +.025 AP] every .25 seconds for 4 seconds. Poisons from unique attacks(autos would be one unique attack, q is one, and shrooms count as one) stack up to three times, each new stack at 50% extra damage(so 175%, which max damage without refreshing the poison would be 315 + .7AP total at level 18, for landing a shroom, an auto, and a q).
Similar to Sol’s passive, I'm suggesting Teemo’s passive be the main source of his damage and tie his entire kit together. Maybe 175% is too low for 3 stacks, but I thought 200% might be too overbearing. Anyway, its not like numbers are not constantly changed.
Sporecloud Dart Skillshot, 700 range, AOE detonation, 300 range, 80/85/90/95/100 mana cost Does 50/75/100/125/150 +.4AP + 1bAD(bonus AD) damage to main target, applying on hit effects(not passive’s on hit), reduces vision range for them for 1.5/1.6/1.7/1.8/1.9/2 seconds, spreads passive DOT(not on hit) to target and nearby enemies
This one has many reasons: By changing it to a skill shot, from a targeted skill, it allows enemies to do more than just “don’t get near Teemo” to avoid it, but in return the cc is better against a wider assortment of enemies rather than just auto reliant ones. It also means that if an enemy can get on you, they have a chance of actually hitting you, but it also keeps his ability to shut down enemy ADC’s intact, if a little less duration. As it is a skill shot, I gave it slightly increased range so that Teemo has something to do in teamfights, but also increased its mana cost so it can’t be spammed The reason it applies the passive in AOE is because I was inspired by Teemo’s skill in this TFT set, which is where the name comes from, and it addresses his issue in the jungle of having poor multi-target damage pre-6. This gives him a pre-6 option for clearing camps/pushing waves, and makes up in part for the damage that is lost from the shrooms(keep reading for that, its not as bad as you might think)
Move quick 10/15/20/25/30% ms Does not break on damage from poisoned targets
That other option I outlined above would also work, I just thought of this one first and it fits with Teemo spreading poison everywhere.
Guerrilla Warfare 1.5 second arm time, indefinite while still/in bushes. Can move 2/2.25/2.5/2.75/3 seconds while stealthed, recharges slowly in bushes. Element of Surprise: 20/30/40/50/60 AS for 3 seconds
Optional bonus:>! After standing still for 1 second, shroom's vision radius grows by 10/20/30/40/50% over the next 2 seconds.!< Basically the prospective changes that we never saw. Not sure what the cooldown was going to be though. The optional bonus is a different take on the “Teemo gains 25% sight range while stealthed” from the most recent one. Im not sure if it would be overpowered or not, but I thought why not? Its not like they haven’t removed mechanics before. Anyway, the idea would be that Teemo can set up a vision network, which enemies are already looking to clear because shrooms, but at the cost of doing things. Great for ambushes, not so much for watching for a gank.
Noxious Trap Deal 10/15/20% max health, and applies Toxic Shot’s DOT(not the on hit) Enemies effected by shrooms take .75% extra damage from Toxic Shot for every 1% missing health, capping at 50% damage(so 109/lvl 6 - 270/lvl 18 +.6 ap total damage, when they are at 33% health for just the shroom, and 472 +1.05 AP for 3 stacks)
Assuming the combo is just one auto, q, and shroom, that is a max of 100% tAD+ 100% bAD + 50 + 150 + 472 + 10% current health + 175% AP(so 672 + 175% AP + auto damage) when the enemy is at ⅓ health. That sounds like a lot, but its not that much for just one combo. For reference, Vigar can do 650 +150% AP with just his ult alone, and then has another 540+160% AP from his other abilities. Anyway, the % current health would allow Teemo to affect Tanks with his Shrooms, without making it overbearing for squishies, while the pseudo-execute extra passive damage makes it so that Teemo can still kill with Shrooms, be it in fights or on fleeing enemies. The idea is to make 2 shot shrooms less feasible, but allow the damage to scale better. It also would only apply Liandries only once, which, while is a nerf, is one that ultimately benefits Teemo as Liandries would be an effective option for 2-3 tank teams, but not a mandatory item for every game you don’t go with On Hit Teemo.
This is just an aggregate post with some feature requests I wanted to put out there. Some are petty, but they're just my very subjective suggestions. Sorry that it's a bit long. ^-^'
I think it'd be nice as an organization administrator, to be able to define custom signatures, or signatures templates that can appear in the dropdown list of users in the organization.
For example, as the admin, I could add custom signature template which standardizes how users have their name, position, and contact information in the bottom of emails, or alternatively, a signature that includes a link to our pages like GitLab, Mastodon, and Matrix. It would be even better if the administrator can also choose the default signature for any users in the organization.
Where Tutanota instructs us on the records to add to our DNS; I think it would be more friendly to put an (i) next to each record with an explanation on why the record is required and what it does. I'm unsure if I should've been aware of MTA-STS for example, but I had never heard of the term. I appreciate there is a dedicated page which provides some information, but putting this in the app instead would be much more intuitive and quicker to access on demand.
Tutanota should allow a list of trusted media sources. Currently, Tutanota blocks all images from all emails by default, including emails where the images have been displayed before. Clients like Thunderbird do this also by default, but also allow exceptions to be configured for example by sender address, by sender domain, or by resource location.
I'd like to be able to click the image icon, but instead of the dialog appearing, have a dropdown instead with options like: Automatic image loading has been blocked to protect your privacy. * Unblock just this once. * Always unblock for emails sent from this user. * Always unblock for emails send from this domain. * Always unblock for the following resource locations: xyz.com, xyz.art, xyz.org
As an administrator of an organization, I'd like to get a visual representation of the storage consumed by users. We're capable of seeing the total storage used, and the total storage used by users one at a time. It'd be more useful to get a pie chart that shows all users at once. It would be even better if the pie chart could have nested data to show where storage consumed is centralized in the archive that could be deleted to save up space. This is especially useful for redundant emails with binary files lost in archived emails.
Currently, when looking in the Subscription settings, the "Storage Capacity" section can show the total used storage in different units, for example: "110.3 KB used of 1 GB". This can be tedious to read as usually, it's nicer to have relative figures, or a percentage. I think it would be much better if it displayed as "0.0001 GB used of 1 GB", or alternatively "0.01103% of storage used", or even both. This suggestion is only for using the same unit, or percentile. I don't know the right number of decimal places or significant figures for optimal UI/UX.
The internals of Android APK build process - Article
Table of Contents
CPU Architecture and the need for Virtual Machine
Understanding the Java Virtual Machine
Compiling the Source Code
Android Virtual Machine
Compilation Process to .dex
ART over Dalvik
Understanding each part of the build process.
Android Asset Packaging Tool
D8 and R8
Dex and Multidex
Signing the APK
Understanding the flow of the Android APK build process, the execution environment, and code compilation blog post aims to be the starting point for developers to get familiar with the build process of Android APK.
JVM is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run applications that are compiled to Java bytecode. It basically helps us in converting the compiled java code to machine code. By using the JVM, the issue of dealing with different types of CPU architecture is resolved. JVM provides portability and it also allows Java code to be executed in a virtual environment rather than directly on the underlying hardware. But JVM is designed for systems with huge storages and power, whereas Android has comparatively low memory and battery capacity. For this reason, Google has adopted an Android JVM called Dalvik. https://preview.redd.it/up2os7juwxk51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a290bdc9be86fb08d67228c730329130da3bc63
Each Android app runs on its own virtual machine. From version 1.0 to 4.4, it was 'Dalvik'. In Android 4.4, along with Dalvik, Google experimentally introduced a new Android Runtime called 'ART'. Android users had the option to choose either Dalvik or ART runtime in Android 4.4. The .class files generated contains the JVM Java bytecodes. But Android has its own optimized bytecode format called Dalvik from version 1.0 to 4.4. Dalvik bytecodes, like JVM bytecodes, are machine-code instructions for a processor. https://preview.redd.it/sqychk81xxk51.png?width=217&format=png&auto=webp&s=49445fa42e4aa6f4008114a822f364580649fcdf
Since Android 4.4, Android migrated to ART, the Android runtime from Dalvik. This execution environment executes .dex as well. The benefit of ART over Dalvik is that the app runs and launches faster on ART, this is because DEX bytecode has been translated into machine code during installation, no extra time is needed to compile it during the runtime. ART and Dalvik are compatible runtimes running Dex bytecode, so apps developed for Dalvik should work when running with ART. The JIT based compilation in the previously used Dalvik has disadvantages of poor battery life, application lag, and performance. This is the reason Google created Android Runtime(ART). ART is based on Ahead - Of - Time (AOT) based compilation process where compilation happens before application starts. In ART, the compilation process happens during the app installation process itself. Even though this leads to higher app installation time, it reduces app lag, increases battery usage efficiency, etc. Even though dalvik was replaced as the default runtime, dalvik bytecode format is still in use (.dex) In Android version 7.0, JIT came back. The hybrid environment combining features from both a JIT compiler and ART was introduced. The bytecode execution environment of Android is important as it is involved in the application startup and installation process. https://preview.redd.it/qh9bxsplzxk51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc40ba6c69cec2110b7d695fe23df094bf5aea6c
Source code is the Java and Kotlin files in the src folder.
The resource files are the ones in the res folder.
Android Interface Definition Language (AIDL) allows you to define the programming interface for client and service to communicate using IPC. IPC is interprocess communication. AIDL can be used between any process in Android.
Library module contains Java or Kotlin classes, Android components, and resources though assets are not supported. The code and resources of the library project are compiled and packaged together with the application. Therefore a library module can be considered to be a compile-time artifact.
Android library compiles into an Android Archive (AAR) file that you can use as a dependency for an Android app module. AAR files can contain Android resources and a manifest file, which allows you to bundle in shared resources like layouts and drawables in addition to Java or Kotlin classes and methods.
JAR is a Java library and unlike AAR it cannot contain Android resources and manifests.
Android Asset Packaging Tool
Android Asset Packaging Tool (aapt2) compiles the AndroidManifest and resource files into a single APK. At this point, it is divided into two steps, compiling and linking. It improves performance, since if only one file changes, you only need to recompile that one file and link all the intermediate files with the 'link' command. AAPT2 supports the compilation of all Android resource types, such as drawables and XML files. When you invoke AAPT2 for compilation, you should pass a single resource file as an input per invocation. AAPT2 then parses the file and generates an intermediate binary file with a .flat extension. The link phase merges all the intermediate files generated in the compile phase and outputs one .apk file. You can also generate R.java and proguard-rules at this time.
The output .apk file does not include the DEX file, so the DEX file is not included, and since it is not signed, it is an APK that cannot be executed. This APK contains the AndroidManifest, binary XML files, and resources.arsc. This resource.arsc contains all meta-information about a resource, such as an index of all resources in the package. It is a binary file, and the APK that can be actually executed, and the APK that you often build and execute are uncompressed and can be used simply by expanding it in memory. The R.java that is output with the APK is assigned a unique ID, which allows the Java code to use the resource during compilation. arsc is the index of the resource used when executing the application. https://preview.redd.it/hmmlfwhdxxk51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2fe2b6ad998594a5364bb6af6b5cbd880a2452c
D8 and R8
Starting from android studio 3.1 onwards, D8 was made the default compiler. D8 produces smaller dex files with better performance when compared with the old dx. R8 is used to compile the code. R8 is an optimized version of D8. D8 plays the role of dexer that converts class files into DEX files and the role of desugar that converts Java 8 functions into bytecode that can be executed by Android. R8 further optimizes the dex bytecode. R8 provides features like optimization, obfuscation, remove unused classes. Obfuscation reduces the size of your app by shortening the names of classes, methods, and fields. Obfuscation has other benefits to prevent easy reverse engineering, but the goal is to reduce size. Optimization reduces the DEX file size by rewriting unnecessary parts and inlining. By doing Desugaring we can use the convenient language features of Java 8 in older devices. https://preview.redd.it/so424bxwxxk51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=0ad2df5bd194ec770d453f620aae9556e14ed017
Dex and Multidex
R8 outputs one DEX file called classes.dex. If you are using Multidex, that is not the case, but multiple DEX files will appear, but for the time being, classes.dex will be created. If the number of application methods exceeds 65,536 including the referenced library, a build error will occur. The method ID range is 0 to 0xFFFF. In other words, you can only refer to 65,536, or 0 to 65,535 in terms of serial numbers. This was the cause of the build error that occurred above 64K. In order to avoid this, it is useful to review the dependency of the application and use R8 to remove unused code or use Multidex. https://preview.redd.it/kjyychmzxxk51.png?width=1261&format=png&auto=webp&s=18bea3bf9f7920a4701c2db9714dc53ae6cc5f82
Signing the APK
All APKs require a digital signature before they can be installed or updated on your device. For Debug builds, Android Studio automatically signs the app using the debug certificate generated by the Android SDK tools when we run. A debug Keystore and a debug certificate is automatically created. For release builds, you need a Keystore and upload the key to build a signed app. You can either make an APK file with apkbuilder and finally optimize with zipalign on cmd or have Android Studio handle it for you with the 'Generated Signed Apk option'. https://preview.redd.it/10m8rjl0yxk51.png?width=1468&format=png&auto=webp&s=078c4ab3f41c7d08e7c2280555ef2038cc04c5b0
My spouse and I ( 30's cisF and 30's AMAB non-binary) had to go out and grab some things over the weekend, so we headed to the local big box store to get the various stuff we needed in one stop (we have very few shopping options). Masked and trying to get in and out quickly, we walked in, and I ran to the bathroom. While I was in the bathroom, they grabbed a basket and wandered into the swimsuit section at the front of the store. They present very masc, pre everything (still on the fence about it they say), but have expressed interest in a swimsuit recently to use in our inflatable pool in the backyard. I came out, met up with them, and we continued our shopping. About 15 minutes later, 8 cops (not merchandise/ security but uniformed, armed officers) surrounded us in the food section. My spouse asked them if they needed something, and they got very close to us and said "yeah someone matching your description" and asked them "is that a buzzcut?" about their hair. BTW, they have BLUE hair, undercut, the long bit is at the neck and the short is buzzed (but shaggy right now). It's really, really obvious. Like, this is not an easily mistakable description-- they have tattoos, blue hair, and several very defining features/ clothing. So it was odd. The cops asked us how long we'd been in the store (I answered, saying about 15 minutes), and if we had been together the whole time-- I just said yes, because the 2 minutes in the bathroom seemed inconsequential. The officer talking to us turned to the others and they exchanged some whispers and talked, then walked away with no other words spoken to us. We were done shopping, so we headed to the front. I am anxious an paranoid at this point, and noticed that we were being followed by the officers-- 3 in front and at least 3 I could see directly behind us. We checked out while they watched us, and they walked out right before we did-- 4 police SUV's parked in the fire lane directly in front of the doors. They watched us walk to our car, and then they pulled away. Now, I have no ability to prove or know for certain that was the reason they were called; but it fucking stinks when I think back over it, and I have a heavy feeling that someone freaked out at "a creepy man" in the swimsuits, and when I said we were together they couldn't detain us officially for anything. We live in the deep, conservative, backward South, where even having their nails painted has been problematic for some. I'm not even sure why I posted, beyond needing to get it out a bit-- it was so enraging for me, and heartbreaking for them; they were quiet for a good while afterward and I didn't know how to help.
Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry Pi 4 image for joining the Medalla multi-client testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator (Prysm, Teku, Lighthouse and Nimbus clients included)
TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 medalla testnet. The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Medalla multi-client testnet , from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing, managing and running the Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients. You will only need to choose an Eth2.0 client, start the beacon chain service and activate / run the validator. Note: this is an update for our previous Raspberry Pi 4 Eth2 image  so some of the instructions are directly taken from there.
Based on Ubuntu 20.04 64bit.
Automatic USB disk partitioning and formatting
Adds swap memory (ZRAM kernel module + a swap file)
Changes the hostname to something like “ethnode-e2a3e6fe” based on MAC hash
Automatically syncs Eth1 Goerli testnet (Geth)
Includes an APT repository for installing and upgrading Ethereum software
Includes 4 Eth2.0 clients
Includes EF eth2.0-deposit-cli tool
Includes 5 monitoring dashboards based on Grafana / Prometheus
Geth: 1.9.20  (official binary) configured for syncing Goerli Testnets
Eth2.0-deposit-cli: 0.2.1 (bundled) 
Prysm: 1.0.0alpha24 
Beacon Chain (official binary)
Validator binary (official binary)
Teku: 0.12.4alpha+20200821 (compiled) 
Lighthouse 0.2.8 (official binary) 
Nimbus 0.5.0 (compiled) 
Grafana 7.0.4 (official package) 
INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE
RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
Raspberry 4 (model B) - 4GB or 8GB (8 GB RAM highly recommended)
MicroSD Card (16 GB Class 10 minimum)
SSD USB 3.0 disk (see storage section)
A case with heatsink and fan (Optional but strongly recommended)
USB keyboard, Monitor and HDMI cable (micro-HDMI) (Optional)
STORAGE You will need an SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options: Use an USB portable SSD disk such as the Samsung T5 Portable SSD. Use an USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Case with a SSD Disk. In our case we used a Inateck 2.5 Hard Drive Enclosure FE2011. Make sure to buy a case with an UASP compliant chip, particularly, one of these: JMicron (JMS567 or JMS578) or ASMedia (ASM1153E). In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of your node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue). IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION 1.- Download the image: http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip SHA256 149cb9b020d1c49fcf75c00449c74c6f38364df1700534b5e87f970080597d87 2.- Flash the image Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file. Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher  Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running: sudo fdisk -l You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image: unzip ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress 3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port). 4.- Power on the device The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7-8 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to install the Medalla setup (it will reboot again) 5.- Log in You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice. 6.- Forward 30303 port in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model. You will need to open additional ports as well depending on the Eth2.0 client you’ve chosen. 7.- Getting console output You can see what’s happening in the background by typing: sudo tail -f /valog/syslog 8.- Grafana Dashboards There are 5 Grafana dashboards available to monitor the Medalla node (see section “Grafana Dashboards” below).
The Medalla Eth2.0 multi-client testnet
Medalla is the official Eth2.0 multi-client testnet according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.2  release (which is aimed to be the final) . In order to run a Medalla Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
An Eth1.0 node running the Goerli testnet in sync . Geth in our case.
An Eth2.0 Beacon Chain connected to the Eth1.0 node. You will need to choose a client here (Prysm, Lighthouse, Teku or Nimbus)
An Eth2.0 Validator connected to the Beacon Chain (same client as the Beacon Chain)
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 setup. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts to sync the Goerli testnet. Follow these steps to enable your Eth2.0 Ethereum node: CREATE THE VALIDATOR KEYS AND MAKE THE DEPOSIT We need to get 32 Goerli ETH (fake ETH) ir order to make the deposit in the Eth2.0 contract and run the validator. The easiest way of getting ETH is by joining Prysm Discord's channel. Open Metamask , select the Goerli Network (top of the window) and copy your ETH Address. Go to: https://discord.com/invite/YMVYzv6 And open the “request-goerli-eth” channel (on the left) Type: !send $YOUR_ETH_ADDRESS (replace it with the one copied on Metamask) You will receive enough ETH to run 1 validator. Now it is time to create your validator keys and the deposit information. For your convenience we’ve packaged the official Eth2 launchpad tool . Go to the EF Eth2.0 launchpad site: https://medalla.launchpad.ethereum.org/ And click “Get started” Read and accept all warnings. In the next screen, select 1 validator and go to your Raspberry Pi console. Under the ethereum account run: cd && deposit --num_validators 1 --chain medalla Choose your mnemonic language and type a password for keeping your keys safe. Write down your mnemonic password, press any key and type it again as requested. Now you have 2 Json files under the validator_keys directory. A deposit data file for sending the 32 ETH along with your validator public key to the Eth1 chain (goerli testnet) and a keystore file with your validator keys. Back to the Launchpad website, check "I am keeping my keys safe and have written down my mnemonic phrase" and click "Continue". It is time to send the 32 ETH deposit to the Eth1 chain. You need the deposit file (located in your Raspberry Pi). You can, either copy and paste the file content and save it as a new file in your desktop or copy the file from the Raspberry to your desktop through SSH. 1.- Copy and paste: Connected through SSH to your Raspberry Pi, type: cat validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE-ID.json (replace $FILE-ID with yours) Copy the content (the text in square brackets), go back to your desktop, paste it into your favourite editor and save it as a json file. Or 2.- Ssh: From your desktop, copy the file: scp [email protected]$YOUR_RASPBERRYPI_IP:/home/ethereum/validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE_ID.json /tmp Replace the variables with your data. This will copy the file to your desktop /tmp directory. Upload the deposit file Now, back to the Launchpad website, upload the deposit_data file and select Metamask, click continue and check all warnings. Continue and click “Initiate the Transaction”. Confirm the transaction in Metamask and wait for the confirmation (a notification will pop up shortly). The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (that includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be enabled. Congrats!, you just started your validator activation process. CHOOSE AN ETH2.0 CLIENT Time to choose your Eth2.0 client. We encourage you to run Lighthouse, Teku or Nimbus as Prysm is the most used client by far and diversity is key to achieve a resilient and healthy Eth2.0 network. Once you have decided which client to run (as said, try to run one with low network usage), you need to set up the clients and start both, the beacon chain and the validator. These are the instructions for enabling each client (Remember, choose just one Eth2.0 client out of 4): LIGHTHOUSE ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 9000 port in your router (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the beacon chain Under the ethereum account, run: sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-beacon sudo systemctl start lighthouse-beacon 3.- Start de validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: lighthouse account validator import --directory=/home/ethereum/validator_keys Then, type your previously defined password and run: sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-validator sudo systemctl start lighthouse-validator The Lighthouse beacon chain and validator are now enabled PRYSM ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 13000 and 12000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the beacon chain Under the ethereum account, run: sudo systemctl enable prysm-beacon sudo systemctl start prysm-beacon 3.- Start de validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: validator accounts-v2 import --keys-dir=/home/ethereum/validator_keys Accept the default wallet path and enter a password for your wallet. Now enter the password previously defined. Lastly, set up your password and start the client: echo "$YOUR_PASSWORD" > /home/ethereum/validator_keys/prysm-password.txt sudo systemctl enable prysm-validator sudo systemctl start prysm-validator The Prysm beacon chain and the validator are now enabled. TEKU ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 9151 port (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator Under the Ethereum account, check the name of your keystore file: ls /home/ethereum/validator_keys/keystore* Set the keystore file name in the teku config file (replace the $KEYSTORE_FILE variable with the file listed above) sudo sed -i 's/changeme/$KEYSTORE_FILE/' /etc/ethereum/teku.conf Set the password previously entered: echo "yourpassword" > validator_keys/teku-password.txt Start the beacon chain and the validator: sudo systemctl enable teku sudo systemctl start teku The Teku beacon chain and validator are now enabled. NIMBUS ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 19000 port (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: beacon_node deposits import /home/ethereum/validator_keys --data-dir=/home/ethereum/.nimbus --log-file=/home/ethereum/.nimbus/nimbus.log Enter the password previously defined and run: sudo systemctl enable nimbus sudo systemctl start nimbus The Nimbus beacon chain and validator are now enabled. WHAT's NEXT Now you need to wait for the Eth1 blockchain and the beacon chain to get synced. In a few hours the validator will get enabled and put into a queue. These are the validator status that you will see until its final activation:
DEPOSITED (the beacon chain detected the 32 ETH deposit with your validator public key)
PENDING (you are in a queue for being activated)
Finally, it will get activated and the staking process will start. Congratulations!, you join the Medalla Eth2.0 multiclient testnet!
We configured 5 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
Lots of info here. You can see for example if Geth is in sync by checking (in the Blockchain section) if Headers, Receipts and Blocks fields are aligned or find Eth2.0 chain info.
Updating the software
We will be keeping the Eth2.0 clients updated through Debian packages in order to keep up with the testnet progress. Basically, you need to update the repo and install the packages through the apt command. For instance, in order to update all packages you would run: sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install geth teku nimbus prysm-beacon prysm-validator lighthouse-beacon lighthouse-validator Please follow us on Twitter in order to get regular updates and install instructions. https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM
Digital options are also referred to as a "binary" or "all-or-nothing options." Options Explained Options are financial derivatives, so they receive their value from an underlying asset or security. Definition of Binary Options: Binary Options are like regular options in that they allow you to make a bet as to the future price of a stock. A trader purchases an option and at the expiration of the option period. What are binary options. A binary option is a type of option with a fixed payout in which you predict the outcome from two possible results. If your prediction is correct, you receive the agreed payout. If not, you lose your initial stake, and nothing more. It's called 'binary' because there can be only two outcomes – win or lose. Trading in Binary Options. Binary option is regarded as a financial derivative and not as a financial asset itself. Each binary trade is characterized by an underlying asset in the form of a commodity, stock, currency, etc. However, the trade is performed on the price movement of the instrument, and not the specific instrument. When trading in binary options, the amount of profit or loss you will bear is fixed. Thus, you will be aware of your profit or loss beforehand. Binary options depend on the outcome of a "yes or no" proposition. Traders receive a payout if the binary option expires in the money and incur a loss if it expires out of the money. Binary ...
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